The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) from the Petit Saut hydroelectric reservoir (Sinnamary River, French Guiana) to the atmosphere were quantified for 10 years since impounding in 1994. Diffusive emissions from the reservoir surface were computed from direct flux measurements in 1994, 1995, and 2003 and from surface concentrations monitoring. Bubbling emissions, which occur only at water depths lower than 10 m, were interpolated from funnel measurements in 1994, 1997, and 2003. Degassing at the outlet of the dam downstream of the turbines was calculated from the difference in gas concentrations upstream and downstream of the dam and the turbined discharge. Diffusive emissions from the Sinnamary tidal river and estuary were quantified from direct flux measurements in 2003 and concentrations monitoring. Total carbon emissions were 0.37 ± 0.01 Mt yr À1 C (CO 2 emissions, 0.30 ± 0.02; CH 4 emissions, 0.07 ± 0.01) the first 3 years after impounding (1994)(1995)(1996) and then decreased to 0.12 ± 0.01 Mt yr À1 C (CO 2 , 0.10 ± 0.01; CH 4 , 0.016 ± 0.006) since 2000. On average over the 10 years, 61% of the CO 2 emissions occurred by diffusion from the reservoir surface, 31% from the estuary, 7% by degassing at the outlet of the dam, and a negligible fraction by bubbling. CH 4 diffusion and bubbling from the reservoir surface were predominant (40% and 44%, respectively) only the first year after impounding. Since 1995, degassing at an aerating weir downstream of the turbines has become the major pathway for CH 4 emissions, reaching 70% of the total CH 4 flux. In 2003, river carbon inputs were balanced by carbon outputs to the ocean and were about 3 times lower than the atmospheric flux, which suggests that 10 years after impounding, the flooded terrestrial carbon is still the predominant contributor to the gaseous emissions. In 10 years, about 22% of the 10 Mt C flooded was lost to the atmosphere. Our results confirm the significance of greenhouse gas emissions from tropical reservoir but stress the importance of: (1) considering all the gas pathways upstream and downstream of the dams and (2) taking into account the reservoir age when upscaling emissions rates at the global scale.
River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in nine European estuaries. Averaged fluxes over the entire estuaries are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mole of CO2 per square meter per day. For wide estuaries, net daily fluxes to the atmosphere amount to several hundred tons of carbon (up to 790 tons of carbon per day in the Scheldt estuary). European estuaries emit between 30 and 60 million tons of carbon per year to the atmosphere, representing 5 to 10% of present anthropogenic CO2 emissions for Western Europe.
We present a new synthesis, based on a suite of complementary approaches, of the primary production and carbon sink in forests of the 25 member states of the European Union (EU-25) during 1990–2005. Upscaled terrestrial observations and model-based approaches agree within 25% on the mean net primary production (NPP) of forests, i.e. 520±75 g C m−2 yr−1 over a forest area of 1.32 × 106 km2 to 1.55 × 106 km2 (EU-25). New estimates of the mean long-term carbon forest sink (net biome production, NBP) of EU-25 forests amounts 75±20 g C m−2 yr−1. The ratio of NBP to NPP is 0.15±0.05. Estimates of the fate of the carbon inputs via NPP in wood harvests, forest fires, losses to lakes and rivers and heterotrophic respiration remain uncertain, which explains the considerable uncertainty of NBP. Inventory-based assessments and assumptions suggest that 29±15% of the NBP (i.e., 22 g C m−2 yr−1) is sequestered in the forest soil, but large uncertainty remains concerning the drivers and future of the soil organic carbon. The remaining 71±15% of the NBP (i.e., 53 g C m−2 yr−1) is realized as woody biomass increments. In the EU-25, the relatively large forest NBP is thought to be the result of a sustained difference between NPP, which increased during the past decades, and carbon losses primarily by harvest and heterotrophic respiration, which increased less over the same period
International audienceWe have measured simultaneously the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) surface concentrations and water–air fluxes by floating chambers (FC) in the Petit-Saut Reservoir (French Guiana) and its tidal river (Sinnamary River) downstream of the dam, during the two field experiments in wet (May 2003) and dry season (December 2003). The eddy covariance (EC) technique was also used for CO2 fluxes on the lake. The comparison of fluxes obtained by FC and EC showed little discrepancies mainly due to differences in measurements durations which resulted in different average wind speeds. When comparing the gas transfer velocity (k600) for a given wind speed, both methods gave similar results. On the lake and excluding rainy events, we obtained an exponential relationship between k600 and U10, with a significant intercept at 1.7 cm h− 1, probably due to thermal effects. Gas transfer velocity was also positively related to rainfall rates reaching 26.5 cm h−1 for a rainfall rate of 36 mm h− 1. During a 24-h experiment in dry season, rainfall accounted for as much as 25% of the k600. In the river downstream of the dam, k600 values were 3 to 4 times higher than on the lake, and followed a linear relationship with U10
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