This review focuses on reports of hepatitis E virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus) within urban environments. Despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. Comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, reduction of shelters for the animals, and restriction of the access of rodents to residences, water, and food supplies.
With the raise of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 and the associated COVID-19 pandemics, much of the knowledge gathered from decades on research on other coronavirus species that use humans and other animals as hosts is invaluable to help counteract the burden of this new disease. This review ais to bring the highlights on coronavirus Biology and the most frequent diseases they might cause, serving rather as an introduction to the field.
Introduction: Brazilian native species are reemerging as increasingly free-ranging populations. Methods: Sera from 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and 28 peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari) were tested for anti-Leptospira and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using microscopic seroagglutination test. Results: Nineteen percent of free-ranging and 10.0% of captive capybaras, along with 31.8% of collared peccaries, were seropositive for T. gondii. None was seropositive for Leptospira sp. Conclusions: The present findings indicated low risk of disease, particularly among capybaras and white-lipped peccaries; however, active surveillance programs are important for monitoring wildlife health and public health once they are in public parks around cities.
RESUMO: Pessoas em situação de rua têm sido consideradas um problema mundial na área da política pública e que demanda uma intervenção multidisciplinar com abordagem de assistência social e saúde. Algumas dessas pessoas em situação de rua têm interação próxima e de companhia com animais domésticos. Embora animais de companhia possam oferecer estabilidade emocional, podem contribuir para recusa no acolhimento humano e persistência nas ruas, como animais de companhia podem ser proibidos de adentrar em abrigos humanos. A presença de animais e a superexposição ambiental podem agravar coinfecções nestas populações vulneráveis. Por isso a importância de incluir o médico veterinário na rede multidisciplinar para garantir a saúde animal e reduzir as zoonoses e seus fatores de risco associados.Palavras-chave: animais de companhia; pessoa em situação de rua; zoonoses ABSTRACT: Homeless has been considered a worldwide public policy problem and may demand a multi-professional intervention with social assistance and health care approaches. Some of these homeless may have close and companion interactions with domestic animals in their environment. Although pets may provide emotional stability, may also contribute to human sheltering refusal and homeless persistence, as pets may not be allowed on most human shelters. Pet presence and environmental exposure may aggravate co-infections in such vulnerable population. Therefore, veterinarian inclusion in such network care frame has been crucial to insure animal health and reduce zoonosis and related risk factor.
Persons experiencing homelessness in São Paulo, Brazil, were seropositive for
spp. (79/109, 72.5%) and typhus group rickettsiae (40/109, 36.7%).
DNA was detected in 17.1% (14/82) body louse pools and 0.9% (1/114) blood samples. Clinicians should consider vectorborne agents as potential causes of febrile syndromes in this population.
We surveyed the presence of herpesvirus, flavivirus, and coronavirus in 20 Magnificent Frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens) from the protected Alcatrazes Island, Alcatrazes archipelago, Brazil. One adult female was positive for herpesvirus (5% occurrence; 95% confidence interval À5.5 to 15.5), whereas none of the samples were PCR-positive for flavivirus or coronavirus. The obtained herpesvirus was highly similar to the one responsible for annual mortality of Magnificent Frigatebird chicks on Grand Conne ´table Island, French Guiana; however, no episodes of mass mortality have been recorded in the birds from Alcatrazes. Our findings indicate that this virus may be widespread in Magnificent Frigatebirds of the southwestern Atlantic. The observed differences in morbidity and mortality may be the result of basal immunosuppression of the birds from French Guiana related to environmental or nutritional conditions. The Alcatrazes archipelago sustains the largest frigatebird breeding colony of the southern Atlantic; future monitoring studies with larger sampling sizes are needed to further determine the epidemiologic relevance of the detected herpesviruses, as well as other viruses (e.g., flaviviruses, coronaviruses, avian influenza virus), in seabirds of Alcatrazes Island.
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