Although fishes exhibit the greatest biodiversity among the vertebrates, a large percentage of this fauna is still underexplored on evolutionary cytogenetic questions, particularly the miniature species. The Lebiasinidae family is a particular example for such case. This study is the first one presenting differential cytogenetic methods, such as C-banding, repetitive DNAs mapping, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and whole chromosome painting in lebiasinid species. Pyrrhulina australis and Pyrrhulina aff. australis were deeply investigated concerning their chromosomal patterns and evolutionary relationships. These species have a very similar morphology, but they can be distinguished by a longitudinal midlateral faintly dark stripe exclusive for Pyrrhulina aff. australis. Both species presented 2n = 40 chromosomes (4st +36a), without heteromorphic sex chromosomes. However, despite their morphological and karyotype resemblance, it was evidenced that both species have already gone through a significant genomic divergence, thus corresponding to distinct evolutionary units. Furthermore, to give additional support to some proposals on evolutionary relationship among Lebiasinidae with other fish families, a chromosomal comparative approach with Erythrinus erythrinus, a representative species of the Erythrinidae family, was also performed. In addition to have similar karyotype structure, mainly composed by acrocentric chromosomes, both species share uncommon genomic similarities, such as (i) syntenic location of 5S and 18S rDNA sequences; (ii) huge dispersion of multiple 5S rDNA sites in the karyotypes; and (iii) complex association between 5S rDNA and Rex3 elements. CGH experiments, despite reinforcing some shared genomic homologies, also highlighted that both Pyrrhulina and Erythrinus have a range of nonoverlapping species-specific signals. The overall chromosomal data proved to be effective markers for the cytotaxonomy and evolutionary process among Lebiasinidae fishes.
Although fishes have traditionally been the subject of comparative evolutionary studies, few reports have concentrated on the application of multipronged modern molecular cytogenetic techniques (such as comparative genomic hybridization = CGH and whole chromosome painting = WCP) to analyze deeper the karyotype evolution of specific groups, especially the historically neglected small-sized ones. Representatives of the family Lebiasinidae (Characiformes) are a notable example, where only a few cytogenetic investigations have been conducted thus far. Here, we aim to elucidate the evolutionary processes behind the karyotype differentiation of Pyrrhulina species on a finer-scale cytogenetic level. To achieve this, we applied C-banding, repetitive DNA mapping, CGH and WCP in Pyrrhulina semifasciata and P. brevis . Our results showed 2n = 42 in both sexes of P. brevis , while the difference in 2n between male and female in P. semifasciata (♂41/♀42) stands out due to the presence of a multiple X 1 X 2 Y sex chromosome system, until now undetected in this family. As a remarkable common feature, multiple 18S and 5S rDNA sites are present, with an occasional synteny or tandem-repeat amplification. Male- vs .-female CGH experiments in P. semifasciata highlighted the accumulation of male-enriched repetitive sequences in the pericentromeric region of the Y chromosome. Inter-specific CGH experiments evidenced a divergence between both species’ genomes based on the presence of several species-specific signals, highlighting their inner genomic diversity. WCP with the P . semifasciata -derived Y (PSEMI-Y) probe painted not only the entire metacentric Y chromosome in males but also the X 1 and X 2 chromosomes in both male and female chromosomes of P. semifasciata. In the cross-species experiments, the PSEMI-Y probe painted four acrocentric chromosomes in both males and females of the other tested Pyrrhulina species. In summary, our results show that both intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements together with the dynamics of repetitive DNA significantly contributed to the karyotype divergence among Pyrrhulina species, possibly promoted by specific populational and ecological traits and accompanied in one species by the origin of neo-sex chromosomes. The present results suggest how particular evolutionary scenarios found in fish species can help to clarify several issues related to genome organization and the karyotype evolution of vertebrates in general.
We present the first cytogenetic data for Lebiasina bimaculata and L. melanoguttata with the aim of (1) investigating evolutionary events within Lebiasina and their relationships with other Lebiasinidae genera and (2) checking the evolutionary relationships between Lebiasinidae and Ctenoluciidae. Both species have a diploid number 2n = 36 with similar karyotypes and microsatellite distribution patterns but present contrasting C-positive heterochromatin and CMA3+ banding patterns. The remarkable interstitial series of C-positive heterochromatin occurring in L. melanoguttata is absent in L. bimaculata. Accordingly, L. bimaculata shows the ribosomal DNA sites as the only GC-rich (CMA3+) regions, while L. melanoguttata shows evidence of a clear intercalated CMA3+ banding pattern. In addition, the multiple 5S and 18S rDNA sites in L. melanogutatta contrast with single sites present in L. bimaculata. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experiments also revealed a high level of genomic differentiation between both species. A polymorphic state of a conspicuous C-positive, CMA3+, and (CGG)n band was found only to occur in L. bimaculata females, and its possible relationship with a nascent sex chromosome system is discussed. Whole chromosome painting (WCP) and CGH experiments indicate that the Lebiasina species examined and Boulengerella maculata share similar chromosomal sequences, thus supporting the relatedness between them and the evolutionary relationships between the Lebiasinidae and Ctenoluciidae families.
Among the order Characiformes, secondary sexual dimorphism is commonly associated to the occurrence of bony hooks on fins, shape and length of the dorsal and anal fins, and sexual dichromatism. The analysis of a new miniature Characidae species of the genus Tyttobrycon, described herein, yielded to the discovery of a sexually dimorphic trait related to nostril aperture and number of olfactory lamellae. In this type of dimorphism, mature males present larger nostril aperture and higher number of olfactory lamella than females. A dimorphic olfactory organ is for the first time recorded and described for a member of the Characiformes. Gross morphology and development of brain and peripheral olfactory organ of Tyttobrycon sp. n. are described and compared to other species of Characidae. It is hypothesized that such dimorphic trait is related to male-male detection during cohort competition in small characids. The new species of Tyttobrycon is diagnosed from its congeners by the number of branched anal-fin rays (19–21) and the absence of a caudal-peduncle blotch. It occurs in a small tributary of Rio Madeira basin, near to the limit between Brazil and Bolivia, Acre State, Brazil.
Most fishes must face their environment alone in the early stages of life. The overall sequence of bone appearance is related to functional demands of the early developmental stages. This study offers detailed data on the skeletogenesis of Moenkhausia pittieri, as an example of a "generalized characid". The sequence of ossification is determined and discussed in response to functional demands. Early developmental stages involve the rapid development of bones related to respiration and feeding. The last sets of bones to appear include those of the paired fins and infraorbitals. Patterns in the order of ossification are highlighted, and heterochronies are detected and discussed. Loss of late developmental stages related to miniaturization, a trend in the evolution of Characidae, is discussed in the light of comparative anatomy and ontogenetic data. Furthermore, morphological particularities found in M. pittieri and other characids are discussed in an ontogenetic perspective, offering a background for future phylogenetic studies to understand the homology of certain structures and serving as a further step to elucidate the relationships in ostariophysans.
Lebiasinidae is a small fish family composed by miniature to small-sized fishes with few cytogenetic data (most of them limited to descriptions of diploid chromosome numbers), thus preventing any evolutionary comparative studies at the chromosomal level. In the present study, we are providing, the first cytogenetic data for the red spotted tetra, Copeina guttata, including the standard karyotype, C-banding, repetitive DNA mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), providing chromosomal patterns and novel insights into the karyotype differentiation of the family. Males and females share diploid chromosome number 2n = 42 and karyotype composed of 2 metacentric (m), 4 submetacentric (sm) and 36 subtelocentric to acrocentric (st-a) chromosomes. Blocks of constitutive heterochromatin were observed in the centromeric and interstitial regions of several chromosomes, in addition to a remarkably large distal block, heteromorphic in size, which fully corresponded with the 18S rDNA sites in the fourth chromosomal pair. This overlap was confirmed by 5S/18S rDNA dual-color FISH. On the other hand, 5S rDNA clusters were situated in the long and short arms of the 2nd and 15th pairs, respectively. No sex-linked karyotype differences were revealed by male/female CGH experiments. The genomic probes from other two lebiasinid species, Lebiasina melanoguttata and Pyrrhulina brevis, showed positive hybridization signals only in the NOR region in the genome of C. guttata. We demonstrated that karyotype diversification in lebiasinids was accompanied by a series of structural and numeric chromosome rearrangements of different types, including particularly fusions and fissions.
Lebiasinidae is a Neotropical freshwater family widely distributed throughout South and Central America. Due to their often very small body size, Lebiasinidae species are cytogenetically challenging and hence largely underexplored. However, the available but limited karyotype data already suggested a high interspecific variability in the diploid chromosome number (2n), which is pronounced in the speciose genus Nannostomus, a popular taxon in ornamental fish trade due to its remarkable body coloration. Aiming to more deeply examine the karyotype diversification in Nannostomus, we combined conventional cytogenetics (Giemsa-staining and C-banding) with the chromosomal mapping of tandemly repeated 5S and 18S rDNA clusters and with interspecific comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate genomes of four representative Nannostomus species: N. beckfordi, N. eques, N. marginatus, and N. unifasciatus. Our data showed a remarkable variability in 2n, ranging from 2n = 22 in N. unifasciatus (karyotype composed exclusively of metacentrics/submetacentrics) to 2n = 44 in N. beckfordi (karyotype composed entirely of acrocentrics). On the other hand, patterns of 18S and 5S rDNA distribution in the analyzed karyotypes remained rather conservative, with only two 18S and two to four 5S rDNA sites. In view of the mostly unchanged number of chromosome arms (FN = 44) in all but one species (N. eques; FN = 36), and with respect to the current phylogenetic hypothesis, we propose Robertsonian translocations to be a significant contributor to the karyotype differentiation in (at least herein studied) Nannostomus species. Interspecific comparative genome hybridization (CGH) using whole genomic DNAs mapped against the chromosome background of N. beckfordi found a moderate divergence in the repetitive DNA content among the species’ genomes. Collectively, our data suggest that the karyotype differentiation in Nannostomus has been largely driven by major structural rearrangements, accompanied by only low to moderate dynamics of repetitive DNA at the sub-chromosomal level. Possible mechanisms and factors behind the elevated tolerance to such a rate of karyotype change in Nannostomus are discussed.
A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin is described from tributaries of the rio Grande (rio São Francisco basin) draining east to the Serra Geral de Goiás, of the rio São Domingos (upper rio Tocantins basin) and rio do Sono basins (middle rio Tocantins basin). Hyphessobrycon diastatos can be diagnosed from its congeners by the absence of humeral spot, 15-18 branched analfin rays, 1-3 maxillary conical to tricuspid teeth, a relatively well-defined dark caudal-peduncle spot, and elongation of dorsaland anal-fin rays in mature males. The biogeographical significance of the distribution of the new species is evaluated and discussed.Uma espécie nova de Hyphessobrycon Durbin é descrita dos tributários do rio Grande (bacia do rio São Francisco) que drenam a leste a Serra Geral de Goiás, das bacias dos rios São Domingos (bacia do alto rio Tocantins) e rio do Sono (bacia do médio rio Tocantins). Hyphessobrycon diastatos pode ser diagnosticada de seus congêneres pela ausência de mancha umeral, 15-18 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal, 1-3 dentes maxilares cônicos ou tricuspidados, uma mancha escura relativamente bem definida no pedúnculo caudal e alongamento das nadadeiras dorsal e anal em machos maduros. O significado biogeográfico da distribuição da espécie nova é avaliado e discutido.
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