-The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ability to walk (gait score), incidence of femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, valgus and varus deformity and leg symmetry of broiler chickens. Male chickens of the Cobb strain from a commercial poultry farm were utilized in this experiment. Fifty 35 and 42-day-old birds were evaluated according to the gait score and valgus or varus incidence. To assess the bilateral symmetry and the lesion score for femoral degeneration and tibial dyschondroplasia, broilers were weighed and euthanized for the removal of the femur and tibia of both legs. The lesion scores for femoral degeneration and tibial dyschondroplasia, varus or valgus deformity, bone symmetry and gait scores of the chickens were then correlated. It was found that weight, age and the incidence of femoral degeneration and tibial dyschondroplasia are not always correlated with the gait score and that only valgus deformity is more correlated.
KeywordsScanning electron microscopy, morphometrics, intestinal mucosa, intestinal wall.Submitted: May/2013 Approved: February/2014 ABStRACt This study aimed at evaluating the intestinal integrity, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the performance of broiler chickens fed additives alternative to antimicrobials. A total of 1080 male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments with six replicates of 30 birds each. The following treatments were evaluated: basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with an antimicrobial, basal diet supplemented with a probiotic, basal diet supplemented with a prebiotic, basal diet with a symbiotic, and basal diet supplemented with organic acids. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and livability were recorded when broiler chickens were 10, 21, 35, and 42 days old. On day 42, 72 birds were individually weighed and sacrificed. In order to evaluate the morphometrics of the different intestinal wall layers, segments of the small intestine and the cecum were collected from two birds per replicate, and intestinal integrity (SEM) was evaluated in the same segments of two birds per treatment. During the starter period (1-21 days old), birds fed the alternative additives presented similar weight gain as those fed the antimicrobial product, but were not different from control birds. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed alternative additives was better than that of the control birds from one to 10 days of age, but not during the remaining rearing period, and was similar to the birds receiving the antimicrobial. The morphometric parameters of the different intestinal wall layers was not influenced by the treatments. During the total rearing period, the evaluated alternative additives did not improve intestinal integrity or broiler performance.
The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of an infection control protocol in dental radiology during radiographic exposure and processing, since the prevention of infectious diseases should be a matter of concern of the professional in all procedures. The areas selected for material collection were the film, tube head, dental chair, lead apron, buttons, protective barrier, darkroom bench and processing solutions (developer solution, water and fixer solution). Material was collected from each area both before and after establishment of the infection control protocol. Ten RODAC plates were employed for each site, adding up to 140 plates (70 before and 70 after), besides 60 Petri plates (30 before and 30 after) containing blood agar as the culture medium. The processing solutions were dropped on the Petri plates, whereas the material collected from the other areas was directly collected on the RODAC plates. All plates were incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours and after this period the number of colonies in each plate was counted. The Wilcoxon test revealed statistically significant differences (p=0.002) between the results before and after establishment of the proposed infection control protocol. It was concluded that the present protocol reduced the number of microorganisms on the analyzed surfaces and processing solutions.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ketoprofen on bone repair process in tibiae of rats by means of analysis of the digital optical density. Twenty Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: an untreated control group and a group treated with ketoprofen. The experimental procedures comprised the following stages: general anesthesia, preparation of a unicortical bone defect on the left tibia of each rat, medication with ketoprofen and radiographic examination. Digital radiographic images were acquired using Visualix GX-S-HDI™ digital sensor and an x-ray equipment. Radiographs were taken at baseline, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days postoperatively and the optical density (OD) was evaluated using the Vix win TM 1.4 system. The mean values of OD readings were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance level set at á=5%. The control group showed a statistically significant correlation (p=0.001) between time and optical density, while the ketoprofen group exhibited a weak and not statistically significant correlation (p=0.100). The control group presented the smallest OD ratios at days 1 and 7, and the greatest OD ratios at days 14, 21 and 30, with statistically significant difference (p=0.001). There was no significant differences (p=0.100) among the OD ratios in the ketoprofen group, regardless of the evaluation period. The findings of this study suggest that ketoprofen influenced bone repair process because there was an increase in optical density during the first week and delayed new bone formation after the 21st day.
The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) regulations establish 12 hours as the maximum pre-slaughter fasting period for broilers; however, many processing plants have considered this time is not sufficient, and consequently return the birds to the farms, with consequent economic losses and welfare problems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the possible effects of longer pre-slaughter fasting times. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter fasting times longer than those established by MAPA on broiler welfare, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity. Forty 42-d-old broilers were submitted to different pre-slaughter fasting times: group I: 6 hours, group II 9h, group III 12h, and group IV 15h. Bird welfare was assessed before slaughter. After sacrifice, intestinal samples were collected to assess their morphology and morphometrics, and the Pectoralis major muscle was analyzed for pH and color. There was no influence (p>0.05) of treatments on breast muscle pH or color.There were no significant changes in intestinal morphometrics (p<0.05). Bird behavior was affected (p<0.05), suggesting that welfare was impaired as fasting time increased, but no differences in the analyzed parameters were detected between broilers fasted for 12 or 15 hours. It was concluded that the behavioral differences between birds fasted for 12 and 15 hours are not sufficient to assert that those fasted for 15 hours were in worse welfare conditions.
Pododermatitis, also known as "bumblefoot", is an inflammatory lesion of the footpad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic strain and sex on the incidence of footpad lesions in broilers. The experiment was carried out at São Paulo State University, using 480 broilers distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement (2 strains X2 sexes), with four replicates of 30 broilers each, totaling 16 experimental units. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and livability were evaluated at 21, 35 and 42 days of age; production efficiency factor was determined at the end of the rearing period. On day 42, the footpads of 100 broilers were grossly examined and assigned a lesion score in a 1-3 scale (Almeida Paz & Martins, 2014). Three samples per score within treatment were collected for microscopic evaluation. Analysis of variance was applied and performance parameter means were compared by Tukey's test. Footpad lesion incidence was analyzed by the χ2 test using SAS (version8.2). Ross ® broilers presented higher feed intake during all evaluated periods, and higher weight gain only in the period 1 to 21 days compared with Cobb ® broilers. On the other hand, Cobb ® presented better feed conversion ratio in the periods of 1 to 35 and 1 to 42 days. The incidence of foot pad lesions was statistically different (p<0.05) between strains and sexes, but there were no interactions between these factors. The lesion scores assigned were compatible with the histopathological results, showing that the higher the score, the more severe were the dermal and epidermal lesions.
The three types of spermatogonia were confirmed. Type A spermatogonia have a large nucleus and loose chromatin and are poor in endoplasmic reticulum. The second type, B spermatogonia, have rounded and smaller nuclei filled with more electron-dense nucleoplasmic material. The endoplasmic reticulum has the aspect of round or elongated cisterns that are free in the cytoplasm or close to the basement membrane. In contrast, intermediate spermatogonia present chromatin material with intermediate condensation compared with the two previous cell types. Primary spermatocytes are characterized by the presence of intercellular bridges and a synaptonemal complex. In the late pachytene stages, the synaptonemal complex was found to be enveloped by chromatin material.
Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, Goltz syndrome), is an X-linked dominant mesoectodermal developmental disorder, involving skin, skeleton, eyes, teeth, and other organs. Mutations in PORCN, which stimulates the secretion of wingless family signal proteins, are found in FDH patients. A female fetus presented at 34 weeks gestation with interuterine growth restriction (IUGR), asymmetry, limb anomalies, microphthalmia, and lung anomaly. Focal dermal hypoplasia was confirmed at birth, with hypoplastic areas of skin, malformation of the limbs, diaphragmatic hernia, and ocular anomalies. Mutation analysis of PORCN revealed a nonsense mutation-Y359X. She presented natal teeth, an unexpected feature considering the role of the Wnt pathway in tooth development.
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