The stem-neck taper interface of bimodular hip endoprostheses bears the risk of micromotions that can result in ongoing corrosion due to removal of the passive layer and ultimately cause implant fracture. We investigated the extent of micromotions at the stem-neck interface and the seating behavior of necks of one design made from different alloys during daily activities. Modular hip prostheses (n ¼ 36, Metha1, Aesculap AG, Germany) with neck adapters (CoCr29Mo6 or Ti6Al4V) were embedded in PMMA (ISO 7206-4) and exposed to cyclic loading with peak loads ranging from walking (F max ¼ 2.3 kN) to stumbling (F max ¼ 5.3 kN). Translational and rotational micromotions at the taper interface and seating characteristics during assembly and loading were determined using four eddy-current sensors. Seating during loading after implant assembly was dependent on load magnitude but not on material coupling. Micromotions in the stem-neck interface correlated positively with load levels (CoCr: 2.6-6.3 mm, Ti: 4.6-13.8 mm; p < 0.001) with Ti neck adapters exhibiting significantly larger micromotions than CoCr (p < 0.001). These findings explain why high body weights and activities related to higher loads could increase the risk of fretting-induced implant failures in clinical application, especially for Ti-Ti combinations. Still, the role of taper seating is not clearly understood. ß
The objectives of this study were to develop a simplified acetabular bone defect model based on a representative clinical case, derive four bone defect increments from the simplified defect to establish a step‐wise testing procedure, and analyze the impact of bone defect and bone defect filling on primary stability of a press‐fit cup in the smallest defined bone defect increment. The original bone defect was approximated with nine reaming procedures and by exclusion of specific procedures, four defect increments were derived. The smallest increment was used in an artificial acetabular test model to test primary stability of a press‐fit cup in combination with bone graft substitute (BGS). A primary acetabular test model and a defect model without filling were used as reference. Load was applied in direction of level walking in sinusoidal waveform with an incrementally increasing maximum load (300 N/1000 cycles from 600 to 3000 N). Relative motions (inducible displacement, migration, and total motion) between cup and test model were assessed with an optical measurement system. Original and simplified bone defect volume showed a conformity of 99%. Maximum total motion in the primary setup at 600 N (45.7 ± 5.6 µm) was in a range comparable to tests in human donor specimens (36.0 ± 16.8 µm). Primary stability was reduced by the bone defect, but could mostly be reestablished by BGS‐filling. The presented method could be used as platform to test and compare different treatment strategies for increasing bone defect severity in a standardized way.
How to proceed with a clinically asymptomatic modular Metha® Ti alloy stem with dual taper CoCr neck adapter in case of acetabular revision? To systematically answer this question the status of research and appropriate diagnostic methods in context to clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic dual taper stem-neck couplings has been evaluated based on a systematic literature review. A retrieval analysis of thirteen Metha® modular dual taper CoCr/Ti alloy hip stems has been performed and a rational decision making model as basis for a clinical recommendation was developed. From our observations we propose that in cases of acetabular revision, that for patients with a serum cobalt level of > 4 µg/L and a Co/Cr ratio > 3.6, the revision of the modular dual taper stem may be considered. Prior to acetabular revision surgery a systematic diagnostic evaluation should be executed, using specific tests such as serum metal (Co, Cr) ion analysis, plain antero-posterior and lateral radiographs and cross-sectional imaging modalities (Metal Artefact Reduction Sequence Magnetic Resonance Imaging). For an asymptomatic Metha® dual taper Ti alloy/CoCr stem-neck coupling at the stage of acetabular revision careful clinical decision making according to the proposed model should be followed and overreliance on any single examination should be avoided, considering the complete individual differential diagnosis and patient situation.
The objectives of this study were to (a) assess primary stability of a press-fit cup in a simplified acetabular defect model, filled with compacted cancellous bone chips, and (b) to compare the results with primary stability of a press-fit cup combined with two different types of bone graft substitute in the same defect model. A previously developed acetabular test model made of polyurethane foam was used, in which a mainly medial contained defect was implemented. Three test groups (N = 6 each) were prepared: Cancellous bone chips (bone chips), tricalciumphosphate tetrapods + collagen matrix (tetrapods + coll), bioactive glass S53P4 + polyethylene glycolglycerol matrix (b.a.glass + PEG). Each material was compacted into the acetabulum and a press-fit cup was implanted. The specimens were loaded dynamically in the direction of the maximum resultant force during level walking. Relative motion between cup and test model was assessed with an optical measurement system. At the last load step (3000 N), inducible displacement was highest for bone chips with median [25th percentile; 75th percentile] value of 113 [110; 114] µm and lowest for b.a.glass + PEG with 91 [89; 93] µm. Migration at this load step was highest for b.a.glass + PEG with 868 [845; 936] µm and lowest for tetrapods + coll with 491 [487;497] µm. The results show a comparable behavior under load of tetrapods + coll and bone chips and suggest that tetrapods + coll could be an attractive alternative to bone chips. However, so far, this was found for one specific defect type and primary stability should be further investigated in additional/more severe defects.
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