Protein restriction during perinatal and early postnatal development is associated with a greater incidence of disease in the adult, such arterial hypertension. The aim in the present study was to investigate the effect of maternal low-protein diet on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, antioxidant levels (enzymatic and nonenzymatic), and oxidative stress levels on the heart of the adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received either 17% casein (normal protein, NP) or 8% casein (low protein, LP) throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning male progeny of these NP or LP fed rats, females were maintained on commercial chow (Labina-Purina). At 100 days post-birth, the male rats were sacrificed and heart tissue was harvested and stored at -80 °C. Our results show that restricting protein consumption in pregnant females induced decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (51% reduction in ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption and 49.5% reduction in respiratory control ratio) in their progeny when compared with NP group. In addition, maternal low-protein diet induced a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidant capacity (37.8% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity; 42% decrease in catalase activity; 44.8% decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity; 47.9% decrease in glutathione reductase; 25.7% decrease in glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase) and glutathione level (34.8% decrease) when compared with control. From these findings, we hypothesize that an increased production of ROS and decrease in antioxidant activity levels induced by protein restriction during development could potentiate the progression of metabolic and cardiac diseases in adulthood.
The brain, more than any other organ in the body, is vulnerable to oxidative stress damage, owing to its requirement for high levels of oxygenation. This is needed to fulfill its metabolic needs in the face of relatively low levels of protective antioxidants. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress is directly involved in the etiology of both eating and anxiety behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoxetine-inhibited serotonin reuptake in nursing rat neonates on behavior and on oxidative stress in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus; brain areas responsible for behavior related to food and anxiety, respectively. The results show that increased serotonin levels during a critical period of development do not induce significant differences in food-related behavior (intake and satiety), but do result in a in a significant decrease in anxiety. Measurements of oxidative stress showed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus (57%). In the hypothalamus, antioxidant enzymes were unchanged, but in the hippocampus, the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase was increased (80% and 85% respectively). This suggests that protecting neural cells from oxidative stress during brain development contributes to the anxiolytic effects of serotonin.
RESUMO:A espécie Phaseolus lunatus L., conhecida popularmente como feijão-fava constitui uma das alternativas de renda e alimentação para a população da região Nordeste do Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados são as doenças que provocam grandes perdas na produção de sementes. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão na redução da incidência de fungos associados às sementes de feijão-fava, e sua interferência na qualidade fisiológica. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão nas concentrações de 0; 1; 1,5 e 2 mL. L -1 e fungicida (Captan ® ). Foram utilizadas 200 sementes por tratamento. Para análise da qualidade sanitária das sementes foi adotado o método de incubação em placas de Petri contendo dupla camada de papel-filtro umedecida com ADE, sob temperatura de 20 ±2 ºC, por 7 dias. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada com base nos testes de germinação, emergência e vigor das sementes. Para o teste germinação foi empregado método de rolo de papel germitest e na emergência osemeio foi realizado em bandejas plásticas contendo areia lavada esterilizada, em condição de casa de vegetação, e após 9 dias da instalação foi determinado o vigor com base nos resultados de índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência; comprimento da parte aérea, raiz primária e plântula; e teor de massa seca da partes aérea, raízes e plântulas de feijão-fava. O delineamento experimental foi interiamente casualizados, em esquama de fatorial simples (3x4)+1 (óleos essenciais x concentrações + fungicida), com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os óleos essenciais de copaíba e manjericão reduziram consideravelmente o percentual de incidência dos fungos associados as sementes de feijão-fava. O óleo essencial de cravo-da-índia na concetração de 2 mL. L -1 , reduziu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-fava. Palavras-chave:Copaifera langsdorffii, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Ocimum basilicum, Sanidade, Qualidade fisiológica. ABSTRACT: Efficiency of essential oils in the sanitary and physiological quality of lima bean seeds (Phaseolus lunatus L.).The Phaseolus lunatus L. species, popularly known as lima bean, is one of the alternative sources of income and food for the population of Northeast Brazil. One of the problems is the diseases that cause great losses in seed production. This study evaluated the effectiveness of essential oils of copaiba, clove, and basil in reducing the incidence of fungi associated with lima bean seeds, as well as the effect on their physiological quality. The treatments consisted of essential oils of copaiba, clove, and basil at concentrations of 0; 1; 1.5; and 2 mL. L-1 and fungicide (Captan®). A total of 200 seeds were used per treatment. To analyze the sanitary quality of the seeds, the method used was incubation in petri dishes containing a double layer of filter paper moistened with distilled sterilized water at a temperature of 20 ± 2°C, for seven days. The physiologic...
This paper shows a study of Nanocomposite formed by adding reduced Graphene oxide with high acidity and polystyrene. The interest and research in the material is due to the ability of these nanoparticles significantly altering the electrical and mechanical properties of the polymer, even addition of small levels. The existence of functional groups on the graphene oxide containing abundant oxygen such as; epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxylic acid, can be well dispersed in the polymer because of its good interaction with polymer chains. In this study we used the solution by dispersing method to that made the use of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), for purposes of obtaining a reaction with functionalization of graphene oxide / polystyrene in time of 48 hours. The analyses of physical-chemical characterizations were made diffraction X-ray (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Infrared Spectroscopy (IRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG) and Differential calorimeter by scanning (DSC). The results obtained by XRD diffraction pattern showed a strong expansion in the peak, indicating amorphization on single sheets of graphene oxide due to distorted sp 3 sites CO. The morphology of the nanocomposite structure was with surface roughness, folds and rough predominant oxidation process of oxygenated functional groups. Their techniques showed the range of absorption, crystallinity degree and the mass loss. Finally, current and future possible applications of formed polystyrene nanocomposite/ graphene oxide show high acidity efficiency in the use of thin films.
Protein restriction during prenatal, postnatal, or in both periods has a close relationship with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Elevated brain levels of serotonin and its metabolites have been found in malnourished states. The aim in the present study was to investigate whether treatment with fluoxetine (Fx), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, mimics the detrimental effect of low-protein diet during the perinatal period on the male rat heart. Our hypothesis is that increased circulating serotonin as a result of pharmacologic treatment with Fx leads to cardiac dysfunction similar to that observed in protein-restricted rats. Male Wistar rat pups received daily subcutaneous injection of Fx or vehicle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Male rats were euthanized at 60 days of age and the following parameters were evaluated in the cardiac tissue: mitochondrial respiratory capacity, respiratory control ratio, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. We found that Fx treatment increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity (123%) and membrane potential (212%) and decreased ROS production (55%). In addition we observed an increase in the antioxidant capacity (elevation in catalase activity (5-fold) and glutathione peroxidase (4.6-fold)). Taken together, our results suggest that Fx treatment in the developmental period positively affects the mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant defense in the cardiac tissue.
The serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the energy balance regulation. Energy balance is mediated by food intake and caloric expenditure. Thus, the present study investigated the mechanisms that might be associated with fluoxetine treatment-induced weight reduction. Wistar male rat pups received daily injections with subcutaneous fluoxetine (Fx-group) or vehicle solution (Ct-group) from day 1 until 21 days of age. Several analyses were conducted to verify the involvement of mitochondria in weight reduction. We found that body weight in the Fx-group was lower compared to control. In association to lower fat mass in the Fx-group (25%). Neither neonatal caloric intake nor food intake reveals significant differences. Evaluating caloric expenditure (locomotor activity and temperature after stimulus), we did not observe differences in locomotor activity. However, we observed that the Fx group had a higher capacity to maintain body temperature in a cold environment compared with the Ct-group. Since brown adipose tissue-(BAT) is specialized for heat production and the rate of heat production is related to mitochondrial function, we found that Fx-treatment increases respiration by 36%, although after addition of GDP respiration returned to Ct-levels. Examining ROS production we observe that Fx-group produced less ROS than control group. Evaluating uncoupling protein (UCP) expression we found that Fx-treatment increases the expression by 23%. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of serotonin system results in positive modulation of UCP and mitochondrial bioenergetics in brown fat tissue.
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