Emerging global threats, such as biological invasions, climate change, land use intensification, and water depletion, endanger the sustainable future of lakes and reservoirs. To deal with these threats, a multidimensional view on the protection and exploitation of lakes and reservoirs is needed. The holistic approach needs to contain not just the development of economy and society but also take into account the negative impacts of this growth on the environment, from that, the balance between the three dimensions can be sustained to reach a sustainable future. As such, this paper provides a comprehensive review on future opportunities and challenges for the sustainable development of lakes and reservoirs via a critical analysis on their contribution to individual and subsets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Currently, lakes and reservoirs are key freshwater resources. They play crucial roles in human societies for drinking water provision, food production (via fisheries, aquaculture, and the irrigation of agricultural lands), recreation, energy provision (via hydropower dams), wastewater treatment, and flood and drought control. Because of the (mostly) recent intensive exploitations, many lakes and reservoirs are severely deteriorated. In recent years, physical (habitat) degradation has become very important while eutrophication remains the main issue for many lakes and ponds worldwide. Besides constant threats from anthropogenic activities, such as urbanization, industry, aquaculture, and watercourse alterations, climate change and emerging contaminants, such as microplastics and antimicrobial resistance, can generate a global problem for the sustainability of lakes and reservoirs. In relation to the SDGs, the actions for achieving the sustainability of lakes and reservoirs have positive links with the SDGs related to environmental dimensions (Goals 6, 13, 14, and 15) as they are mutually reinforcing each other. On the other hand, these actions have direct potential conflicts with the SDGs related to social and economic dimensions (Goals 1, 2, 3 and 8). From these interlinkages, we propose 22 indicators that can be used by decision makers for monitoring and assessing the sustainable development of lakes and reservoirs.
Though aquaculture plays an important role in providing foods and healthy diets, there are concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of prevailing practices. This study examines the trends and changes in fisheries originating from aquaculture production in Thailand and provides insights into such production’s environmental impacts and sustainability. Together with an extensive literature review, we investigated a time series of Thai aquaculture production data from 1995 to 2015. Overall, Thai aquaculture production has significantly increased during the last few decades and significantly contributed to socio-economic development. Estimates of total aquaculture production in Thailand have gradually grown from around 0.6 to 0.9 million tons over the last twenty years. Farmed shrimp is the main animal aquatic product, accounting for an estimated 40% of total yields of aquaculture production, closely followed by fish (38%) and mollusk (22%). Estimates over the past decades indicate that around 199470 ha of land is used for aquaculture farming. Out of the total area, 61% is used for freshwater farms, and 39% is used for coastal farms. However, this industry has contributed to environmental degradation, such as habitat destruction, water pollution, and ecological effects. Effective management strategies are urgently needed to minimize the environmental impacts of aquaculture and to ensure it maximally contributes to planetary health. Innovative and practical solutions that rely on diverse technology inputs and smart market-based management approaches that are designed for environmentally friendly aquaculture farming can be the basis for viable long-term solutions for the future.
The fisheries sector significantly contributes to global food security, nutrition, and livelihood of people. Its importance for economic benefits, healthy diets, and nutrition, and achieving sustainable food systems is highlighted by several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), i.e., SDG 1 (No Poverty), SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), and SDG 14 (Life Below Water). However, due to unprecedented population levels, the contribution of the fisheries sector to fulfills these roles is challenging, particularly given additional concerns regarding environmental well-being and sustainability. From this perspective, this study aims to identify the links and trade-offs between the development of this sector and the environmental sustainability in Thailand via a critical analysis of their trends, current ecological impacts, and more importantly, their contributions to several individual SDGs. A time-series of Thailand’s fisheries production from 1995 to 2015 indicates a recent reduction from around 3.0 million tons in 1995 to 1.5 million tons in 2015 of wild fish and shellfish from marine and freshwater habitats. The maximum sustainable yield of these species has been exceeded. Conversely, Thailand’s aquaculture production has continued to grow over the last decade, resulting in a reduction of mangrove forest area, wild fish stocks, and water quality. While capture fisheries and aquaculture production significantly contribute to several SDG targets, there are potential trade-offs between their development and the achievement of SDGs within the planet dimension, i.e., SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production), SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 14, and SDG 15 (Life on Land). On the one hand, the mitigation of overfishing will be beneficial for the targets of SDG 14, leading to more sustainable resource management. On the other hand, it might cause a decrease in the volume of marine catches and economic and social profits. We conclude that the SDGs can serve as a framework for both policymakers and industrial workers to monitor and compromise on regulations that will optimize productivity in the context of sustainable development.
Combined partial nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes have been widely applied for nitrogen removal from anaerobic digestion reject water. However, such streams also contain dissolved methane that can escape to the atmosphere, hence contributing to global warming. This study investigates the possibility of integrating methane removal in aerobic anammox-based granular sludge reactors, through modelling and simulation. Methane removal could be established through aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), denitrifying anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (damoB, NO + CH → N + CO), and/or archaea (damoA, NO + CH → NO + CO). The simulation results demonstrated that the combined removal of nitrogen and methane was feasible at low dissolved oxygen conditions. Aerobic MOB were the main responsible microorganisms for removing methane. A sensitivity analysis of key kinetic parameters showed a shift in the methanotrophic populations depending on the most favourable parameters for each microbial group, while keeping high nitrogen and methane removal efficiencies. Possible methane stripping during aeration could be limited by increasing the depth within the reactor column at which aeration was supplied. Overall, the integration of methane removal in aerobic anammox-based granular sludge reactors seems to be a promising process option to reduce the carbon footprint from wastewater treatment.
Despite covering a small portion of the earth's surface, lakes and reservoirs offer enormous benefits to human society, environmental well-being, and economic welfare. Previous studies have provided insights into specific subjects, yet integrated perspectives on the development of the two waterbodies are missing. To this end, we conducted a bibliometric analysis as a systematic data gathering to perform a large-scale overview and assess global trends of their scientific publications. Moreover, a second goal is to differentiate their research hotspots and current challenges given the different nature of their origin and functionality. 147,811 publications from 1955 to 2019 were retrieved from the database of the Science Citation Index Expanded, and then, divided into four research lines, (1) design and operation; (2) environment and ecology; (3) sanitation and human health; (4) socioeconomics. Bibliometric indicators showed that the number of publications sustained a rapid growth, from 100 during the 1950s to around 7800 publications per year during the past few years. The United States and EU 28 have long been world leaders in lake and reservoir research yet China has tremendously boosted its publications within the past 20 years, advancing this nation to the new world leader in both categories in 2019. Taking a closer look at research hotspots, design and operation have been the main topics for reservoir research while environment and ecology topics are the hotspots in lakes-related studies. This reflected the intensive human interventions in reservoirs, whose major purposes are to supply hydropower energy, irrigation, water storage, and aquaculture. Conversely, the impacts of eutrophication, heavy metals, and climate change have become more severe with the increase of species extinction and biodiversity loss, leading to urgent needs for lake restoration. Both freshwater bodies show comparable attention on their roles in socioeconomics while much higher concerns about sanitation and human health have been paid in reservoirs compared to its counterpart. Clear obtained distinctions in the hotspots and challenges of lake and reservoir research can contribute to better decision support systems of the two waterbodies.
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