Perioperative cardiac arrests were relatively higher in neonates, infants, the elderly and in males with severe underlying disease and under emergency surgery. All anaesthesia-related cardiac arrests were related to airway management and medication administration which is important for prevention strategies.
Condições de trabalho e transtornos mentais comuns em trabalhadores da rede básica de saúde de Botucatu (SP)Working conditions and common mental disorder among primary health care workers from Botucatu, São Paulo State
BackgroundMedical students engage in curricular and extracurricular activities, including undergraduate research (UR). The advantages, difficulties and motivations for medical students pursuing research activities during their studies have rarely been addressed. In Brazil, some medical schools have included undergraduate research into their curriculum. The present study aimed to understand the reality of scientific practice among medical students at a well-established Brazilian medical school, analyzing this context from the students’ viewpoint.MethodsA cross-sectional survey based on a questionnaire applied to students from years one to six enrolled in an established Brazilian medical school that currently has no curricular UR program.ResultsThe questionnaire was answered by 415 students, 47.2% of whom were involved in research activities, with greater participation in UR in the second half of the course. Independent of student involvement in research activities, time constraints were cited as the main obstacle to participation. Among students not involved in UR, 91.1% said they favored its inclusion in the curriculum, since this would facilitate the development of such activity. This approach could signify an approximation between the axes of teaching and research. Among students who had completed at least one UR project, 87.7% said they would recommend the activity to students entering the course.ConclusionEven without an undergraduate research program, students of this medical school report strong involvement in research activities, but discussion of the difficulties inherent in its practice is important to future developments.
Objetivo: analisar a influência da via de parto sobre a força muscular do assoalho pélvico (FM-AP). Métodos: estudo clínico de corte transversal, para avaliar a FM-AP pelo teste da avaliação da força do assoalho pélvico (AFA) e uso do perineômetro em primíparas, entre 20-30 anos de idade, 4-6 meses pós-parto. A contração, medida pelos dois testes, foi classificada em: zero -ausência, um -leve, dois -moderada e três -normal, sustentada por 6 segundos. Avaliaram-se 94 mulheres, entre 20 e 30 anos, divididas em três grupos: pós-parto vaginal (n=32); pós-cesárea (n=32) e nulíparas (n=30). A variável independente foi a via de parto e a dependente, a FM-AP. A comparação entre os graus de contração foi realizada pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Dunn para comparações múltiplas; a influência da via de parto pelo teste χ 2 , o risco relativo (RR) para alteração da FM-AP e o coeficiente kappa para avaliar equivalência entre os testes. Resultados: a mediana e 1º e 3º quartil da FM-AP foram menores (p=0,01) pós-parto vaginal (2,0;1-2) e intermediários pós-cesárea (2,0; 2-3) em relação às nulíparas (3,0;2-3), tanto analisadas pelo AFA como pelo perineômetro. Aumentou o RR de exame alterado pós-parto vaginal (
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of the variables stair climbing time (SCt), stair climbing power (SCP), six-minute walk test distance (6MWT), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) using maximal oxygen uptake on exercise (VO2max) as the gold standard. METHODS: Tests were performed in 51 patients. FEV1 was measured by spirometry and 6MWT was performed in a flat 120-m corridor. Stair climbing test was performed on a 6-flight stairway to obtain SCt and SCP. VO2max was measured by ergospirometry, using the Balke protocol. Pearson's linear correlation and p values were calculated between VO2max and the other variables tested. For accuracy calculations, variable cutoff points were obtained through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, dividing individuals into normal or unhealthy. Kappa statistic was used to calculate concordance. RESULTS: Accuracy was: SCt - 86%, 6MWT - 80%, SCP - 71%, FEV1(L) - 67%, FEV1(%) - 63%. SCt and 6MWT showed 93.5% sensitivity when combined in parallel, and 96.4% specificity in series. CONCLUSION: SCt presented the best accuracy. SCt and 6MWT combined showed nearly 100% sensitivity or specificity. Thus, these simple exercise tests should be more routinely used, especially when an ergospirometer is not available to measure VO2max.
RESUMO -A doença vascular encefálica (AVE) é a principal causa de morte no Brasil.As seqüelas em indivíduos pós-acidente vascular encefálico incluem distúrbios motores, distúrbios de fala ou de linguagem e distúrbios de deglutição. A disfagia orofaríngea ocorre em cerca de 50% dos pacientes com AVE. Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a incidência da disfagia após AVE. Foram avaliados todos os pacientes que deram entrada em hospital universitário de referência no período de um ano, tão logo apresentassem condições para avaliação clínica, fonoaudiológica e neurológica (102 pacientes), com análise objetiva da deglutição (61 pacientes). Foi observada incidência de disfagia em 76,5% dos pacientes avaliados clinicamente, este percentual elevando-se a 91% com avaliação videofluoroscópica. A alta incidência de disfagia observada neste estudo que avaliou pacientes com amplo espectro de gravidade, em diferentes fases de recuperação, ressalta a importância de equipe multidisciplinar, incluindo fonoaudiólogos capacitados, para avaliar os distúrbios da deglutição nos diversos momentos de recuperação dos AVEs.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: epidemiologia, disfagia orofaríngea, acidente vascular encefálico. Incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with stroke in a regional hospital in São Paulo State -BrazilABSTRACT -Cerebrovascular disease is recognized as to be associated with the highest mortality rate in Brazil. Dysphagia, speech and language disturbances are common consequences of the high incidence of stroke. Dysphagia is known to occur in at least 50% of the patients with acute stroke. The study is designed to stablish the incidence of stroke in a reference hospital. One hundred and two consecutive patients admitted between January 2001 and January 2002 underwent a neurological examination with dysphagia specific analysis, performed by speech/dysphagia professionals as soon as they have clinical conditions.The localization of the lesions are determined by computer tomography or magnetic resonance image of the brain. Sixty one patients underwent videofluorscopic evaluation of swallowing. There was detected oropharyngeal dysphagia in 78 patients (76.5%) if the examination was limited to the clinical evaluation. Neverthless, if complemented by videofluorscopic evaluation, the incidence grows to 90%. The explanation for the high incidence observed in this study could be pointed to the fact that dysphagia was registered on different times of the convalescence period.The data reinforces the importance of repeated evaluations made by different professionals of the sttaff involved in acute stroke attendance.KEY WORDS: epidemiology, oropharyngeal dysphagia, stroke.A disfagia é reconhecida como um dos principais fatores de risco para ocorrência de pneumonia aspirativa 1,2 , uma das complicações mais freqüentes dos acidentes vasculares do encéfalo (AVEs), principal causa de morte no Brasil 3 . Barreto 4 chamava a atenção para a freqüência e gravidade de disfagia após AVEs e para a necessidade do pronto reconhecimento e tratamento ade...
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