Background Although COVID-19 has greatly affected many low-income and middle-income countries, detailed information about patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is still scarce. Our aim was to examine ventilation characteristics and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in Argentina, an upper middle-income country. Methods In this prospective, multicentre cohort study (SATICOVID), we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who were on invasive mechanical ventilation and admitted to one of 63 ICUs in Argentina. Patient demographics and clinical, laboratory, and general management variables were collected on day 1 (ICU admission); physiological respiratory and ventilation variables were collected on days 1, 3, and 7. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. All patients were followed until death in hospital or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality, identification of independent predictors of mortality, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and patterns of change in physiological respiratory and mechanical ventilation variables. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04611269 , and is complete. Findings Between March 20, 2020, and Oct 31, 2020, we enrolled 1909 invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19, with a median age of 62 years [IQR 52–70]. 1294 (67·8%) were men, hypertension and obesity were the main comorbidities, and 939 (49·2%) patients required vasopressors. Lung-protective ventilation was widely used and median duration of ventilation was 13 days (IQR 7–22). Median tidal volume was 6·1 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 6·0–7·0) on day 1, and the value increased significantly up to day 7; positive end-expiratory pressure was 10 cm H 2 O (8–12) on day 1, with a slight but significant decrease to day 7. Ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO 2 ) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) was 160 (IQR 111–218), respiratory system compliance 36 mL/cm H 2 O (29–44), driving pressure 12 cm H 2 O (10–14), and FiO 2 0·60 (0·45–0·80) on day 1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 1672 (87·6%) of patients; 1176 (61·6%) received prone positioning. In-hospital mortality was 57·7% (1101/1909 patients) and ICU mortality was 57·0% (1088/1909 patients); 462 (43·8%) patients died of refractory hypoxaemia, frequently overlapping with septic shock (n=174). Cox regression identified age (hazard ratio 1·02 [95% CI 1·01–1·03]), Charlson score (1·16 [1·11–1·23]), endotracheal intubation outside of the ICU (ie, before ICU admission; 1·37 [1·10–1·71]), vasopressor use on day 1 (1·29 [1·07–1·55]), D-dimer concentration (1·02 [1·01–1·03]), PaO 2 /FiO ...
Aim: This scoping review paper aimed to overview the published research related to nursing students and online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic over the last year 2020-2021. Methodology: Online Google Scholar Database was searched for articles related to nursing students and online learning during Covid 19 pandemic published between1st June 2020 to 1st June 2021. Results: Initial search with key words “nursing students” found 20300 results, finally 39 articles were selected which meet the eligibility criteria. Majority of the authors (69.23 %) have an academic affiliation, only one single author (11.2 %) with clinical affiliation and those who had both academic and clinical were (28.19 %). Only (5.12 %) study applied any theory or conceptual frame work. The focuses of the studies selected were mainly (33.33 %) perception or attitude, (28.20 %) impact and satisfaction were as (20.52 %) focused on experiences and challenges faced. We could only find (5.12 %) studies those where funded. In the selection of research designs majority (46.15 %) adopted quantitative approach followed by (20.51 %) qualitative approaches and (10.25 %) mixed methods; others (23.07 %) included reports, editorials, reflective articles, opinions. About (94.8 %) studies were done without any collaboration with other disciplines only (5.12 %) studies were multidisciplinary. Conclusion: Nursing teaching faculties swiftly responded to COVID-19 by conducting researches mainly adopting quantitative approaches. Nursing researches need more collaboration and funding.
Introduction: During the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, many centers globally reported a significant decrease in volumes of emergencies including acute stroke (AS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the reason for this remains unknown, pandemic-driven anxiety among patients may have resulted in unwarranted refusals to transport when deemed necessary by EMS (Emergency Medical Services) providers. We sought to study the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of Emergency Medical transport (EMTr) and patient refusals to transport when serious medical conditions were suspected by EMS personnel. Methods: In this retrospective, observational study of Grady Health System’s EMS, we compared the rates of EMTr and refusals for adult patients with suspected diagnoses of AS, AMI, and other medical conditions in the first year of the pandemic (Y1, Mar 2020-Feb 2021) with the corresponding period in the year prior (Y0). We also compared the temporal trends for these variables across the different pandemic waves (1 st , Mar-May 2020; 2 nd , Jun-Aug 2020; 3 rd , Sep 2020-Feb 2021) with the corresponding periods in the year before. Results: Grady EMS responded to 207,888 calls in Y1 compared to 201,968 in Y0. The overall rate of refusals for all diagnoses was 15.5% in Y1 vs 14.1% in Y0, that for AS was 2.25% in Y1 vs 1.77% in Y0 and 7.5% in Y1 vs 5.67% in Y0 for AMI (Figure). Conclusion: There were more refusals in the first two waves of the pandemic. While refusals were higher for AS and AMI, this was not statistically significant. Our study provides valuable insight into the behavioral patterns of patients seeking emergency care during the pandemic and emphasizes a need for public education and more research.
Background Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems exist to reduce death and disability from life-threatening medical emergencies. Less than 9% of the African population is serviced by an emergency medical services transportation system, and nearly two-thirds of African countries do not have any known EMS system in place. One of the leading reasons for EMS utilization in Africa is for obstetric emergencies. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a qualitative description and summation of previously described interventions to improve access to care for patients with maternal obstetric emergencies in Africa with the intent of identifying interventions that can innovatively be translated to a broader emergency context. Methods The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) under the number CRD42018105371. We searched the following electronic databases for all abstracts up to 10/19/2020 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus and African Index Medicus. Articles were included if they were focused on a specific mode of transportation or an access-to-care solution for hospital or outpatient clinic care in Africa for maternal or traumatic emergency conditions. Exclusion criteria included in-hospital solutions intended to address a lack of access. Reference and citation analyses were performed, and a data quality assessment was conducted. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative metasynthesis approach. Findings A total of 6,457 references were imported for screening and 1,757 duplicates were removed. Of the 4,700 studies that were screened against title and abstract, 4,485 studies were excluded. Finally, 215 studies were assessed for full-text eligibility and 152 studies were excluded. A final count of 63 studies were included in the systematic review. In the 63 studies that were included, there was representation from 20 countries in Africa. The three most common interventions included specific transportation solutions (n = 39), community engagement (n = 28) and education or training initiatives (n = 27). Over half of the studies included more than one category of intervention. Interpretation Emergency care systems across Africa are understudied and interventions to improve access to care for obstetric emergencies provides important insight into existing solutions for other types of emergency conditions. Physical access to means of transportation, efforts to increase layperson knowledge and recognition of emergent conditions, and community engagement hold the most promise for future efforts at improving emergency access to care.
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