Trichogramma spp. are major parasitoids of lepidopteran pest eggs, but there is large variation in efficacy toward a given pest among the numerous described Trichogramma species. It is important to select the Trichogramma species that most effectively parasitize and develop in target pest eggs for biological control. In this context, Trichogramma pretiosum, T. exiguum, T. atopovirilia and T. acacioi were studied in Heliothis virescens eggs under different thermal conditions. The parasitoids were reared at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30°C and tested at these respective temperatures, while parasitoids reared at 25°C were also tested at 20 and 30°C, for a total of 20 species-temperature combinations. About 30 H. virescens eggs were offered to the parasitoids for 24 h. Among the four species, parasitism rate by T. atopovirilia was highest at all temperature conditions, whereas T. acacioi had the lowest rates of parasitism at 25°C and 25/30°C. Parasitism ranged from 13.8 to 43.8% among all species-temperature combinations. Viability (emerged parasitoids) ranged from 80.8 to 98.4%, and was deemed satisfactory. The emergence rates of T. exiguum and T. acacioi were affected by temperature. Temperature also affected the sex ratio of T. exiguum at 25/30°C, whereas T. pretiosum and T. acacioi produced females predominantly independent of temperature. Overall, the parasitoid T. atopovirilia was the most efficient in parasitizing H. virescens eggs, though the levels of parasitism obtained might not ensure its successful use in biological control programs. The temperature-related differences in biological traits observed in the four Trichogramma species tested hint at the importance of making careful choices regarding climatic conditions where the parasitoid is going to be used when selecting a species for biological control programs.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre alguns aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platiner, (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) criado nos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) e Sitotroga cerealella Oliver (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), visando à produção desses parasitóides para utilização no controle biológico de pragas. A maior taxa de parasitismo de T. exiguum foi encontrada em ovos de A. kuehniella. A viabilidade foi superior em ovos de S. cerealella. A razão sexual foi semelhante para ambos os hospedeiros alternativos. Estes resultados demonstram que ambos hospedeiros alternativos podem ser utilizados na criação massal de T. exiguum, porém levando em consideração a importância da taxa de parasitismo, A. kuehniella demonstrou maior aptidão. Palavras-chave: insecta, controle biológico, criação massal, parasitóides de ovos.
EFEITO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) VUILLEMIN E Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) SOROKIN NOS PARÂMETROS BIOLÓGICOS DE Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.
Termos para indexação:Parasitóide, entomopatógeno, manejo integrado de pragas.
ABSTRACTTwo bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid chamber to observe fungus sporulation. The experiments were maintained in a climatized chamber at 25±1º C, RH 70± 10%, and photophase of 14 hours. The longevity and adult mortality, total parasitism, progeny emergency, number of individuals per egg and sexual ratio were analyzed. The biopesticides did not affect the evaluated parameters and no fungus sporulation was observed in dead females. It is possible to assert that the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana and M. anisopliae can be used with T. atopovirilia in IPM S. frugiperda systems.
ABSTRACT. Trichogramma spp. are egg parasitoids of various pest species of Lepidoptera including Trichoplusia ni, an important pest of plants in the genus Brassica. Of the climatic conditions that can impair Trichogramma spp. parasitism capacity, the temperature is critical. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of T. ni at 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, and 33ºC; 70±10% RH; and 12/12 hours photophase (L/D). Fresh eggs of the host moth were offered to T. pretiosum daily. The parasitism rate varied between 8 and 11.4 eggs/female at the temperatures evaluated for the first 24 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs per female occurred at 24ºC (53.0 parasitized eggs/female). The period of parasitism and the mean longevity of females were inversely related to the temperature. Temperature heavily influences the parasitism rate of T. pretiosum on eggs of T. ni, and the best overall performance of the parasitoid occurs from 24 to 27ºC.
Biological characteristics of the egg parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, and T. bennetti were studied to select the one with better performance on the control of the Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Parasitism rate, viability, and sex ratio were studied. Parasitism rate ranged from 1.67 to 41.33%. T. atopovirilia and T. acacioi were respectively the most and less aggressive species. The viability ranged from 6.20% for T. acacioi to 53.34% for T. atopovirilia. There were no differences on sex ratio (P < 0.05) that remained above 0,88. T. atopovirilia was the species with best performance in the laboratory when rearing on the Diamondback moth eggs.
Biological characteristics of the egg parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, and T. bennetti were studied to select the one with better performance on the control of the Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Parasitism rate, viability, and sex ratio were studied. Parasitism rate ranged from 1.67 to 41.33%. T. atopovirilia and T. acacioi were respectively the most and less aggressive species. The viability ranged from 6.20% for T. acacioi to 53.34% for T. atopovirilia. There were no differences on sex ratio (p<0.05) that remained above 0,88. T. atopovirilia was the species with best performance in the laboratory when rearing on the Diamondback moth eggs.
Abstract:Hypothenemus hampei (coffee borer beetle or coffee berry borer) is the main pest of coffee Coffea spp. in the world. The aim of this study was to select native isolates of the ascomycete Beauve ria bassiana for biological control of this pest. We collected 27 isolates on H. hampei from the state of Espírito Santo in Brazil. Isolates CCA-UFES/Bb-15, Bb-11, Bb-4 and Bb-18 were selected, with confirmed beetle mortality of > 60% after spraying with a suspension of 10 5 conidia/mL. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of these isolates varied from 4.0 × 10 4 to 7.9 × 10 4 conidia/mL. The standard isolate (ESALQ-447) showed the highest conidiogenesis, with 8.5 × 10 6 conidia, followed by CCA--UFES/Bb-18, Bb-11, Bb-15 and Bb-4, all exceeding 4 × 10 6 . Isolates CCA-UFES/Bb-4, Bb-11, Bb-15, and Bb-18 have a potential to control H. hampei.
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