Objective Pre-eclampsia involves a maternal inflammatory response that differs from both normal pregnancy and normotensive intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Our objective was to examine neutrophil Toll-like receptor (TLR), cryopyrin, nuclear factor-jB (NF-jB) subunit and interleukin-1b (IL-1b), and inflammatory cytokine profiles in women with preeclampsia or normotensive IUGR, as well as in normal pregnancy and non-pregnancy controls.Design and method A case-control study was performed. We examined the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of TLR4 and TLR2, mRNA levels of cryopyrin, IL-1b, NF-jB subunits p50 and p65, as well as maternal serum inflammatory cytokine profiles (IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-a [TNF-a], interferon-c [IFN-c] and IL-10) in women with and without pre-eclampsia using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays.Setting A single tertiary maternity hospital in Vancouver, Canada.Population Women with early-onset pre-eclampsia (<34 weeks of gestation, n = 25), women with late-onset pre-eclampsia ( ‡34 +0 weeks of gestation, n = 25), women with normotensive IUGR (n = 25), women with normal pregnancy (n = 75) and non-pregnancy (n = 25) controls.Results Women with pre-eclampsia (as a single combined group of early-and late-onset, and particularly in women with earlyonset pre-eclampsia) had increased TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expressions elevated cryopyrin, NF-jB subunit, and IL-1b mRNA expression, and TNF-a:IL-10 and IL-6:IL-10 ratios compared with other groups.Conclusions These data suggest that TLRs and cryopyrin may modulate the innate immune response of the maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia, and might also trigger the differential inflammatory response existing between early onset pre-eclampsia and normotensive IUGR.
BackgroundSelf-management after a stroke is a challenge because of multifaceted care needs and complex disabling consequences that cause further hindrance to patient participation. A 13-week stroke patient empowerment intervention (Health Empowerment Intervention for Stroke Self-management [HEISS]) was developed to enhance patients’ ability to participate in self-management.PurposeTo examine the effects of the empowerment intervention on stroke patients’ self-efficacy, self-management behavior, and functional recovery.MethodsThis is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with stroke survivors assigned to either a control group (CG) receiving usual ambulatory rehabilitation care or the HEISS in addition to usual care (intervention group [IG]). Outcome data were collected at baseline (T0), 1 week (T1), 3 months (T2), and 6 months (T3) postintervention. Data were analyzed on the intention-to-treat principle. The generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the differential change of self-efficacy in illness management, self-management behaviors (cognitive symptom management, communication with physician, medication adherence, and self-blood pressure monitoring), and functional recovery (Barthel and Lawton indices) across time points (baseline = T0, 1 week = T1, 3 months = T2, and 6 months = T3 postintervention) between the two groups.ResultsA total of 210 (CG =105, IG =105) Hong Kong Chinese stroke survivors (mean age =69 years, 49% women, 72% ischemic stroke, 89% hemiparesis, and 63% tactile sensory deficit) were enrolled in the study. Those in IG reported better self-efficacy in illness management 3-month (P=0.011) and 6-month (P=0.012) postintervention, along with better self-management behaviors at all follow-up time points (all P<0.05), apart from medication adherence (P>0.05). Those in IG had significantly better functional recovery (Barthel, all P<0.05; Lawton, all P<0.001), compared to CG. The overall dropout rate was 16.7%.ConclusionPatient empowerment intervention (HEISS) may influence self-efficacy in illness management and improve self-management behavior and functional recovery of stroke survivors. Furthermore, the HEISS can be conducted in parallel with existing ambulatory stroke rehabilitation services and provide added value in sustaining stroke self-management and functional improvement in the long term.
Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasma species, which cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in equines, canines, and humans. The objective of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Anaplasma naturally infect Korean water deer (KWD) in the Republic of Korea. A total of 66 spleens from KWD carcasses were collected by the Conservation Genome Resource Bank for Korean Wildlife in Korea between March 2008 and May 2009. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using 16S ribosomal (r)RNA, with ankA, groEL, and msp2 gene primers to amplify the genes of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Using 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis were detected in 42 (63.6%) and 23 (34.8%) of 66 KWD spleens, respectively. The 42 A. phagocytophilum were classified into five genotypes and the 23 A. bovis were classified into two genotypes by sequence analysis. By ankA-, groEL-, and msp2-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 1 (1.5%), 7 (10.6%), and 3 (4.6%) of 66 samples, respectively. These gene sequences had only one genotype. Five of seven obtained 16S rRNA gene sequences have never been identified. The ankA, groEL, and msp2 obtained gene sequences represented new genotypes. This is the first report of A. phagocytophilum and A. bovis in KWD, suggesting that they may act as reservoirs for anaplasmosis zoonotic pathogens.
Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds). Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease) spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection.
As human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs) are capable of multiple lineage differentiation, extensive self-renewal and tumor targeting, they may be valuable for clinical anticancer therapies. In this study, we used hAFSCs as vehicles for targeted delivery of therapeutic suicide genes to breast cancer cells. hAFSCs were engineered to produce AF2.CD-TK cells in order to express two suicide genes encoding bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) that convert non-toxic prodrugs, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and mono-phosphorylate ganciclovir (GCV-MP), into cytotoxic metabolites, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and triphosphate ganciclovir (GCV-TP), respectively. In cell viability test in vitro, AF2.CD-TK cells inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in the presence of the 5-FC or GCV prodrugs, or a combination of these two reagents. When the mixture of 5-FC and GCV was treated together, an additive cytotoxic effect was observed in the cell viability.In animal experiments using female BALB/c nude mouse xenografts, which developed by injecting MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment with AF2.CD-TK cells in the presence of 5-FC and GCV significantly reduced tumor volume and weight to the same extent seen in the mice treated with 5-FU. Histopathological and fluorescent staining assays further showed that AF2.CD-TK cells were located exactly at the site of tumor formation. Furthermore, breast tissues treated with AF2.CD-TK cells and two prodrugs maintained their normal structures (for example, the epidermis and reticular layers) while breast tissue structures in 5-FU-treated mice were almost destroyed by the potent cytotoxicity of the drug. Taken together, these results indicate that AF2.CD-TK cells can serve as excellent vehicles in a novel therapeutic cell-based gene-directed prodrug system to selectively target breast malignancies. INTRODUCTIONBreast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. 1 Chemotherapy has been the main treatment for highly metastatic breast cancer. Although various chemotherapeutic agents are currently available, their applications are limited because of undesirable side effects, substantial toxicities to normal tissues and high-dose requirements resulting from drug resistance. In this study, we present a novel, low-toxic and effective chemotherapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer using genetically engineered stem cells to deliver suicide genes.Suicide genes are viral or bacterial enzymes that can convert non-toxic prodrugs into toxic metabolites that cause tumor cell death when introduced into tumor sites. Among a number of suicide gene/prodrug combinations, cytosine deaminase (CD)/ 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ganciclovir (GCV) have been most extensively studied. The product of the CD gene converts a far less toxic prodrug, 5-FC, into its cytotoxic form, 5-FU, a nucleotide analog that induces cell death by inhibiting thymidyla...
Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.