Soybean products (soyfoods), reported as potential functional foods, are implicated in several health-enhancing properties, such as easing the symptoms of postmenopausal women, reducing the risk of osteoporosis, preventing cardiovascular disease, and antimutagenic effects. Isoflavone, for example, is one of the most important compounds abundantly found in soybean, mainly accounting for the health-enhancing properties as mentioned earlier. However, most biological activities of isoflavones are mainly attributed to their aglycone forms. It has also been demonstrated that isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in greater amount than their glycosides in human intestines. Fortunately, deglycosylation of isoflavones can be achieved during fermentation process by several strains such as lactic acid bacteria, basidiomycetes, filamentous fungus, and Bacillus subtilis with their β-glucosidase activity. This article presents an overview of soybean's chemistry, application, state-of-the-art advances in soybean fermentation processing and products as well as their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Different compounds, such as isoflavone, dietary fibers, and proteins which exhibit significant bioactivities, are summarized. The roles of different microorganisms in bioconversion and enhancement of bioactivities of fermented soybean are also discussed.
A selection of nine macrocyclic Fe(III/II) and Co(III/II) transition metal complexes has been chosen to serve as a universal set of mediator-titrants in redox potentiometry of protein samples. The potential range spanned by these mediators is approximately from +300 to -700 mV vs the normal hydrogen electrode, which covers the range of most protein redox potentials accessible in aqueous solution. The complexes employed exhibit stability in both their oxidized and their reduced forms as well as pH-independent redox potentials within the range 6 < pH < 9. The mediators were also chosen on the basis of their very weak visible absorption maxima in both oxidation states, which will enable (for the first time) optical redox potentiometric titrations of proteins with relatively low extinction coefficients. This has previously been impractical with organic mediators, such as indoles, viologens and quinones, whose optical spectra interfere strongly with those of the protein.
A catalytic system for deglycosylation of isoflavone in black soybean milk was established. β-Glucosidase which was covalently immobilized onto the glass microspheres exhibited a significant efficiency for the conversion of pNPG to p-nitrophenol over other carriers. The optimum temperature for pNPG hydrolysis was 40 °C, and complete reaction can be reached in 30 min. Operational reusability was confirmed for more than 40 batch reactions. Moreover, the storage stability verification demonstrated that the glass microsphere catalytic system was capable of sustaining its highest catalytic activity for 40 days. The kinetic parameters, including rate constant (K) at which isoflavone glycosides deglycosylation were determined, the time (τ(50)) in which 50% of isoflavone glycosides deglycosylation was reached, and the time (τ(complete)) required to achieve complete isoflavone glycosides deglycosylation, were 0.35 ± 0.04 min(-1), 2.04 ± 0.25 min, and 30 min (for daidzin) and 0.65 ± 0.03 min(-1), 1.19 ± 0.08 min, and 20 min (for genistin), respectively. HPLC results revealed that this enzyme system took only 30 min to reach complete isoflavone deglycosylation and the aglycone content in the total isoflavones in black soymilk was enriched by 51.42 ± 0.17% under a 30 min treatment by the glass microsphere enzymatic system.
Electrochemically driven catalysis of the bacterial enzyme dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase (Rhodobacter capsulatus) has been studied using the macrocyclic complex (trans-6,13-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6,13-diamine)cobalt(III) as a mediator. In the presence of both DMSO and DMSO reductase, the normal transient Co(III/II) voltammetric response of the complex is transformed into an amplified and sigmoidal (steady-state) waveform characteristic of a catalytic EC' mechanism. At low concentrations of DMSO (approximately K (M)) or high mediator concentrations (more than the concentration of DMSO reductase), the steady-state character of the voltammetric response disappears and is replaced by more complicated waveforms that are a convolution of transient and steady-state behavior as different steps within the catalytic cycle become rate limiting. Through digital simulation of cyclic voltammetry performed under conditions where the sweep rate, DMSO concentration, DMSO reductase concentration and mediator concentration were varied systematically, we were able to model all voltammograms with a single set of rate and equilibrium constants which provide new insights into the kinetics of the DMSO reductase catalytic mechanism that have hitherto been inaccessible from steady state or stopped flow kinetic studies.
The bacterial molybdoenzyme dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus catalyzes the reduction of DMSO to dimethyl sulfide in anaerobic respiration. In its native state, DMSO reductase is reduced to its active state by a pentaheme cytochrome (DorC). Alternatively, we show that DMSO reductase catalysis may be driven electrochemically using a series of homologous coordination compounds as mediating synthetic electron donors. All mediators are macrocyclic hexaaminecobalt(II) complexes in their active form, differing principally in their redox potentials over a range of about 250 mV. Thus, each complex presents a different reductive driving force to DMSO reductase and this leads to pronounced differences in the electrocatalytic behavior as measured by cyclic voltammetry. Digital simulation of the experimental voltammetry enables the critical features of the catalytic cycle to be extracted.
The establishment of a catalytic system to enrich isoflavone aglycones in black soybean milk was investigated in this study. Beta-glucosidase, which was covalently immobilized onto cellulose beads, exhibited a significant efficiency for the conversion of 4-nitrophenyl β-d-glucuronide to p-nitrophenol over the sol-gel method. The Michaelis constant (K) of the cellulose bead enzymatic system was determined to be 1.50±0.10 mM. Operational reusability of the cellulose bead enzymatic system was justified for more than 10 batch reactions in black soy milk. Moreover, the storage stability verification indicated that the cellulose bead catalytic system was able to sustain its highest catalytic activity for 10 days. High-performance liquid chromatography results demonstrated that this enzymatic system required only 30 minutes to achieve complete isoflavone deglycosylation, and the aglycone content in the total isoflavones in black soy milk was enriched by 67% within 30 minutes by the cellulose bead enzymatic system.
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