Larger males of the wild Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens were more successful in male contests. There were no differences in fighting duration among treatments. Comparing agonistic behaviour between large and small males in 1 and 2 .. treatments, larger males attacked, chased and performed total agonistic behaviour more than smaller males. There were no differences between larger and smaller males concerning other agonistic behaviour during fighting. Females presented with two potential mates of different sizes did not prefer larger males. 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles
the respondents had poor knowledge about cholera-related issues like definition, causes, prevention and management while 97% had positive attitude towards prevention of cholera and cholera vaccine. One third of the respondents did not have good practice for prevention of cholera. Lack of adequate supply of water and gas to boil water, unconsciousness, high density of population and living places surrounded by drainage water were identified as reasons for not having good practice.This study shows significant association between respondents' knowledge and sex, education, occupation, monthly household expenditure, attitude and practice (p<0.05). In the adjusted model, female were 74% less likely to have poor knowledge than male (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62-0.87). Compared to respondent's high monthly household expenditure (>128US$), the significant odds (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.58) was found with the respondents who had monthly lowest household expenditure (< = 93US$) that they were more likely to have poor knowledge.Conclusion: This study recommended to strengthen health education activities to improve knowledge of low socio-economic group of people on cholera and cholera vaccine and emphasized the importance of mass cholera vaccination to prevent and control cholera.
We investigated the amount of time that large and small, male and female fiddler crabs Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) spent on feeding, walking, standing, grooming, burrowing, inside burrows, fighting, and courtship waving. We video-recorded the activities of 45 males (22 small and 23 large), and 39 females (19 small and 20 large) each for 5 min, and calculated the percentage of time spent on each activity/crab. Our results showed that both sexes spent more time on feeding than on other activities. Males spent more time on building burrows, walking, and grooming than females, and females spent more time inside burrows than males. Smaller males spent more time on feeding, and less time on building burrows and on waving than larger ones. There were no relations between female body size and activities. Feeding rate/feeding claw was higher in males than in females, and crab body size was negatively associated with feeding rate/min.
RÉSUMÉNous avons étudié le temps que passent les mâles et les femelles du crabe violoniste Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) pour l'alimentation, la marche, le repos, la toilette, le creusement du terrier, le temps passé à l'intérieur du terrier, les combats et la parade. Nous avons enregistré en vidéo les activités de 45 mâles (22 petits and 23 grands), et 39 femelles (19 petites et 20 grandes) chacun pendant 5 min, et nous avons calculé le pourcentage de temps passé à chaque activité/crabe. Nos résultats ont montré que les deux sexes passent plus de temps pour se nourrir que pour toutes les autres activités. Les mâles passent plus de temps à bâtir des terriers, marcher et faire leur toilette que les femelles, et les femelles passent plus de temps à l'intérieur des terriers que les mâles. Les mâles plus petits passent plus de temps à s'alimenter et moins de temps à construire des terriers et à la parade nuptiale que les mâles plus grands. Il n'y a pas de relation entre la taille du corps de la femelle et ses activités. Le rapport taux d'alimentation/longueur de la pince servant à la prise de nourriture était plus élevé chez les mâles que chez les femelles, et la taille du corps du crabe était associé négativement au rapport taux d'alimentation/min.
Uca bengali Crane, 1975 females have two small feeding claws but males have one small feeding claw and another big claw used for waving and fights. On the basis of video recordings of feeding motions and duration, and morphometric measurements of body size (measured as carapace width) and feeding claw size (measured as dactyl length and width), differences in feeding rate per crab and per feeding claw, feeding duration, and feeding claw size between sexes were studied with the main aim to test male ability to compensate for the loss of one functional feeding claw. Additionally, feeding rate of males and females of small and large size classes was studied. Furthermore, correlations between feeding rate and body size, as well as feeding claw size and body size were investigated. Results showed that increased feeding rate per feeding claw coupled with a larger feeding claw allowed males to compensate for the loss of one feeding claw. Smaller males and females fed faster than larger ones. There was a negative correlation between feeding rate and carapace width. Feeding duration did not vary between males and females of comparable size. A positive correlation was observed between feeding claw size and carapace width.
RÉSUMÉLes femelles de Uca bengali Crane, 1975, possèdent deux petites pinces servant à la nutrition (pinces alimentaires) mais les mâles ont une petite pince alimentaire et une autre, grosse, utilisée pour faire des signaux et pour les combats. À partir d'enregistrements vidéos des mouvements de nutrition et de leur durée, et de mesures morphométriques de la taille du corps (mesurée par la largeur de la carapace) et de la taille de la pince (longueur et largeur du dactyle), des différences du taux d'alimentation par crabe et par pince alimentaire, de la durée de l'alimentation, de la taille de la pince alimentaire dans les deux sexes ont été étudiées dans le but principal de tester la capacité du mâle à compenser la perte d'une pince alimentaire fonctionnelle. De plus, le taux d'alimentation des mâles et des femelles de classes de taille petites et grandes ont été étudiées. De plus, les corrélations entre le taux d'alimentation et la taille du corps ainsi que, entre la taille de la pince alimentaire et la taille
Community well-being refers to the qualities of an optimally healthy community life. This is the ultimate goal of all the various processes and strategies created to meet the needs of people living together in communities. We propose a holistic integrated visualization, in the form of a community well-being assessment system, as a web-based advanced tool to be used by the executive and health officers of the sub-district administration organization (SAO) network to improve decision-making in order to strengthen their communities. Data were obtained from the Family and Community Assessment Program (FAP) and the SAO in nine sub-districts, covering all of the four regions of Thailand. The system incorporates dashboard architecture and assists the executive and health officers in the SAO to achieve better decision-making for the deployment of proper measures in communities. The model was developed for the Pakpoon SAO and was applied to the other eight SAOs. In order to evaluate the model, 243 users, covering all user groups from three sites, were asked to answer 18 questions during a meeting. The overall average score for user satisfaction was 4.12. The results indicate that this model can be used for community well-being assessment, in order to improve decision-making to strengthen communities in Thailand.
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