Using the NCGG-SGS frailty criteria, we found more participants with physical frailty than with cognitive frailty. The individuals with cognitive frailty had the highest risks of IADL limitations. Future investigation is necessary to determine whether this population is at increased risk for incidence of disability or mortality.
BackgroundThe aim of this study was to describe the age‐dependent changes in the parameters of physical performance and body composition in Japanese older adults who are independently dwelling in the community. We also examined whether the age‐dependent changes differ among physical performance and body composition parameters.MethodsCross‐sectional data from 10 092 community‐dwelling older adults (mean age 73.6 years; 5296 women) were analyzed. The measures of physical performance included hand‐grip strength, the five‐times‐sit‐to‐stand test, and walking speed. Body composition parameters (body weight, fat mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass) were measured with a bioelectrical impedance analyser. Correlations between age and the physical performance and body composition parameters were tested. The T‐scores of physical performance and body composition measurements were calculated and presented according to 5‐year age groups to examine the differences in age‐dependent changes in physical performance and body composition parameters.ResultsAll physical performance measures significantly decreased with aging. The cumulative mean T‐scores according to age group showed different age‐dependent changes between body mass index (BMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) (cumulative mean T‐score change of BMI and ASMI of −5.7 to −2.9 and −12.7 to −12.1, respectively). The slope declines in age‐associated changes were greater in grip strength (β = −0.77, 95% confidence interval = −0.82 to −0.76) for men and in walking speed (β = −0.95, 95% confidence interval = −0.99 to −0.90) for women.ConclusionsThe patterns of age‐dependent decreases in physical performance measures differed among parameters and between sexes. There is a possibility of a difference in the age‐related slope patterns among parameters; decreases in grip strength in men and walking speed in women may be more prominent with advancing age. Furthermore, the decrease in ASMI with age is more striking than that of BMI.
BackgroundWe aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-wide campaign (CWC) for promoting physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people.MethodsA cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a community as the unit of randomization was performed using a population-based random-sampled evaluation by self-administered questionnaires in the city of Unnan, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The evaluation sample included 6000 residents aged 40 to 79 years. We randomly allocated nine communities to the intervention group and three to the control group. The intervention was a CWC from 2009 to 2010 to promote physical activity, and it comprised information, education, and support delivery. The primary outcome was a change in engaging in regular aerobic, flexibility, and/or muscle-strengthening activities evaluated at the individual level.ResultsIn total, 4414 residents aged 40–79 years responded to a self-administered questionnaire (73.6% response rate). Awareness of the CWC was 79% in the intervention group. Awareness and knowledge were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although there were no significant differences in belief and intention. The 1-year CWC did not significantly promote the recommended level of physical activity (adjusted odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.14).ConclusionsThis cluster RCT showed that the CWC did not promote physical activity in 1 year. Significant differences were observed in awareness and knowledge between intervention and control groups as short-term impacts of the campaign.Trial registrationUMIN-CTR UMIN000002683
Background: Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults.
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