Galectin-1, a beta-galactoside binding protein that can occur as both a monomer and a homodimer, binds to leucocyte membrane antigens such as CD7, CD43, and CD45, and has immune-regulatory functions in several animal models of autoimmune disease. However, its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, a marked increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein levels was demonstrated in non-activated and activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, following treatment with a high concentration (dimeric form), but not a low concentration (monomeric form), of recombinant galectin-1 protein. IL-10 is known to suppress TH1 type immune responses and upregulation of IL-10 may thus contribute to the immune-regulatory function of galectin-1. Galectin-1 was strongly expressed on the endothelial cells of human kidney allografts, suggesting a role in the regulation of immune responses in transplantation. Administration of high concentrations of galectin-1 may be a useful tool in the treatment of T-cell-mediated diseases.
SummaryAnaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are characterised by the presence of CD30-positive large cells, which usually are of T-cell type. Based on the presence or absence of translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) locus, ALCL cases can be divided into two groups. To gain more insight in the biology of ALCL, we applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) on the Karpas299 cell line and identified 25 up-and 19 downregulated genes. Comparison of the differentially expressed genes with DNA copy number changes in Karpas299 revealed that two overexpressed genes, S100A10 and S100A11, were located in an amplicon suggesting that the increased mRNA levels were caused by DNA amplification. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on 5 ALCL cell lines and 12 ALCL tissues confirmed the SAGE data for 13 out of 14 up-and one out of four downregulated genes. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of S100A10, a calcium-binding protein, in three out of five ALK+ and all 7 ALK) ALCL cases. S100A11 staining was confirmed in all ALK+ and six of seven ALK) ALCL cases. Three of the upregulated genes represented calcium-binding proteins, which suggest that altered intracellular signaling might be associated with the oncogenesis of ALCL.
ADAM19 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 19) isinvolved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha shedding. We studied ADAM19 in chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) nephrectomies and in normal human kidneys. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR revealed an upregulation of ADAM19 mRNA in CAN when compared with control kidneys (p = 0.002). Using RNA in situ hybridization (ISH), we detected moderate ADAM19 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and distal tubuli of control kidneys. In CAN, massive ADAM19 expression was detected in SMCs, distal tubuli, glomerular sclerotic lesions and inflammatory CD4 + cells. To determine whether ADAM19 is specifically related to CAN, we studied transplant biopsies with and without CAN, acute rejection and non-transplant-related kidney diseases: interstitial fibrosis (IF), interstitial atrophy, glomerular fibrosis and interstitial inflammation. In various renal structures, ADAM19 mRNA was significantly higher in CAN when compared with renal allografts without CAN or acute rejection. ADAM19 expression in renal endothelium was significantly higher in acute rejection when compared with renal allografts without CAN. When compared to CAN, ADAM19 was expressed to a similar extent in non-transplant-related interstitial and glomerular fibrosis, interstitial atrophy and inflammation. Although these observational data do not establish a cause and effect relationship, ADAM19 may have a modulatory role in the dysfunctional renal allograft state.
TIAF-1 mRNA and protein are predominantly up-regulated in kidney and liver allografts with chronic rejection. This does not seem to be related to the cyclosporine A therapy. Expression of TIAF-1 in the lymphocytes during chronic allograft rejection may be related to the predominance of a Th2 response in this condition. The expression in the transplanted tissue may protect these cells from apoptosis.
The SLN concept in colon carcinoma using Patent Blue V is feasible and accurate. It leads to upstaging of nodal status in 33% of patients when IHC and PCR techniques are combined. Therefore, the clinical value of SLN should be the subject of further studies.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.