In Antarctica, the genus Bartramia has been restricted to a single polymorphic species, B. patens. Its status as a separate species or a subspecies of the Northern Hemisphere B. ithyphylla was debated. In the present paper, we combine analyses of chloroplast (trnS–rps4–trnT–trnL–trnF region) and nuclear ITS sequences with a reinvestigation of morphological characteristics to infer the identity of Antarctic Bartramia. Phylogenetic and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) species delimitation analyses indicate that the species diversity of Bartramia in Antarctica has been underestimated, since two species were identified, both belonging to Bartramia sect. Pyridium. Of these, B. subsymmetrica is a new record of the species for Antarctica, as it has previously only been recorded from Livingston Island, South Shetlands. The other species is B. patens, which is separated from B. ithyphylla by newly inferred morphological characteristics and is a sister species to the latter in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Consequently, we consider B. ithyphylla to be a Northern Hemisphere instead of a bipolar species. The suggested conspecificity of both taxa into one species in the ABGD analysis is considered to result from overlumping by this species delimitation method. The delimitation of the three species of section Bartramia (B. halleriana, B. mossmaniana and B. pomiformis) and the circumscription of the genus Bartramia are discussed.
Rio Grande do Sul is the southern state of Brazil and includes 569 taxa of bryophytes, a rich diversity promoted by its geographical position. All recent floristic inventories in the state recorded new occurrences of species, indicating that the diversity of bryophytes may be underestimated. Through floristic inventories carried out between 2016 and 2019, new occurrences of 16 species, included in seven families and 11 genera, were identified. Seven of them are also new records for the Southern Brazil. Bryophyta is represented by five species, four genera and four families, and Marchantiophyta by 11 species, seven genera, and three families.
Sphaerocarpos muccilloi (Sphaerocarpaceae, Marchantiophyta) was described in 1981, being an endemic species and the only species of the family to Brazil. This species is considered as Critically Endangered (CR) according to “Red List of threatened species of the Rio Grande do Sul state”. Sphaerocarpos muccilloi was recorded in three places only in Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre, São Leopoldo and Ivoti (collected from 1963 to 1977). These sites are highly anthropized and the last records being from more than 40 years. After a revision of herbarium specimens and several field trips we recollected S. muccilloi in the Pampa Biome, in Santana do Livramento municipality, at the Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area (APA do Ibaratuitã), Mata and Santa Vitória do Palmar municipalities. Another species (S. texanus), not reported to Brazil, was reported now to Paraná state. These new records provide important information about occurrence and distribution of the family to Brazil. Regarding to S. muccilloi, these new records show that the range of occurrence is wider than previous reported. This new data will help the next revision of the Red List of Threatened Species of Rio Grande do Sul and Brazil and will subsidize conservation strategies.
The Atlantic Forest contains more bryophyte species and greater endemism than any other Brazilian phytogeographic domain. We analyzed the bryoflora of an Atlantic Forest remnant along the southern Brazilian coast to examine: (i) floristic composition, species richness, life forms and bryocenological groups in different phytophysiognomies (humid lowlands, sandy Restinga forests, and swampy Restinga forests); (ii) floristic similarities among them; and, (iii) the influence of substrate types on bryophyte species richness and floristic composition. Sandy Restinga forest had the greatest species richness. Approximately 75 % of the species and 42 % of the families were not shared among phytophysiognomies. The predominant life form was mat (46 %) and the predominant bryocenological group was corticolous (69 %). Elevated floristic differentiation was observed among the different phytophysiognomies (Jaccard values <0.35) and among the different substrates sampled (<0.2). The floristic uniqueness found among the different physiognomies in the present study demonstrates the importance of studying the diversity and conservation of all Atlantic Forest phytophysiognomies. The evaluation of bryophytes to delimit and manage protected areas can contribute to effective protection of the entire biodiversity spectrum. In addition to their important ecological roles, bryophytes are useful bio-indicators and valuable tools for monitoring, conserving, and restoring ecosystems.
Lorentziella imbricata (Mitt.) Broth. belongs to the family Gigaspermaceae and is a common plant in the subtropical regions of the Noth and South America. This plant can be characterized by presenting leafy stems arising from subterranean rhizomatous axes, pale green or often whitish leaves, and sessile large capsules with large spores. This is the first citation of the genus Lorentziella and the family Gigaspermaceae for Brazil, found during field collections in the Pampa biome, state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Snow Island is part of the South Shetland Archipelago in Antarctica. Most of its surface is permanently covered by snow, yet it has an important paleobotanical site. There are no protected areas on the island and no recent data regarding its vegetation. This study aimed to collect and identify fresh samples of bryophytes from President Head Peninsula of Snow Island. Samples were collected during the summers of 2015 and 2018. Among the 24 bryophyte species identified in this work, 19 are new occurrences for Snow Island, bringing the total known for the island to 29 species. The most diverse family is Pottiaceae, with four species of two genera, followed by Bryaceae and Polytrichaceae, with three species each. The results show that the diversity of mosses on Snow Island is greater than previously reported. We here demonstrated the region's importance and the 190 % increase in Snow Island species number. This study also updated the Antarctic distribution of some species.
The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the increase in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, particularly the agents of high-morbidity diseases. Even though some studies report the use of bryophytes as sources of antimicrobial compounds, further research is necessary to elucidate the existence and potentialities of such bioactive compounds, especially in Brazil. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract of Orthostichella rigida species of music, collected at different times of the year against bacteria and fungi that may be human pathogenic, the first of food origin and the second as opportunistic. Antimicrobial activity was verified using the broth microdilution method (MIC-MBC/MFC), assayed in triplicate. Seasonal influence was determined from the absolute values of MIC and MBC/MFC together with the triplicate average of these same methods. O. rigida ethanolic extract was effective in antimicrobial analysis for all microorganisms tested, being that the species less sensitive to O. rigida extracts was the fungus Candida albicans when compared to the other isolates tested. The highest sensitivity to O. rigida extracts were for Listeria monocytogenes (19.53 μg/mL), Cryptococcus neoformans (39.06 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis (78.13 μg/mL). The extracts from the summer, autumn and winter seasons were more efficient to reach MIC, CBM and CFM, with values below 100 μg/mL for both, which is considered potent. Seasonal influence is statistically evident in spring, which has demonstrated minor antimicrobial activity when compared with the other seasons. Mosses are understudied regarding their compounds and O. rigida has demonstrated a rising potential for future research and possible use as a natural antimicrobial.
RESUMO O Parque Estadual de Itapeva (PEVA) é uma Unidade de Conservação de proteção integral, localizada no litoral norte do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, cujo objetivo principal é a preservação de ecossistemas naturais de grande relevância ecológica e beleza cênica como dunas, banhados, mata paludosa e mata de restinga, remanescentes da Floresta Atlântica. Objetivando conhecer as briófitas existentes no PEVA foi realizado levantamento florístico através de caminhadas livres, resultando na identificação de 101 espécies, 46 gêneros e 31 famílias. Dentre as fitofisionomias amostradas, a floresta arenosa de restinga sobre afloramento rochoso foi a mais expressiva, com 70 espécies identificadas. Catorze espécies são novas ocorrências para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e entre essas, sete são novos registros para a região sul do Brasil. Os resultados indicam que o PEVA é uma importante área de conservação que preserva a biodiversidade demonstrando a necessidade de mais estudos florísticos no Estado, especialmente no Litoral.
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