Home ownership is often regarded as the preferred housing tenure; however, situations in parallel life-course careers might make moving to a rental home necessary or attractive to home owners. Retrospective data from the SHARELIFE survey were used to study the short-and long-term impact of situations and disruptions in the family and housing careers on leaving home ownership at middle (45-64) and older ages (65 -80) in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. We found that directly after separation and widowhood, the likelihood of leaving home ownership was the greatest. However, more than 10 years after separation and widowhood, individuals were still significantly more likely to leave ownership than those in their first marriage. Furthermore, late first childbirth and early first-time home ownership were associated with lower chances of leaving home ownership. We conclude that situations and changes in family and housing careers have both a short-term and a long-term impact on the likelihood of moving out of home ownership.
BackgroundIntraurban sociodemographic risk factors for COVID-19 have yet to be fully understood. We investigated the relationship between COVID-19 incidence and sociodemographic factors in Barcelona at a fine-grained geography.MethodsThis cross-sectional ecological study is based on 10 550 confirmed cases of COVID-19 registered during the first wave in the municipality of Barcelona (population 1.64 million). We considered 16 variables on the demographic structure, urban density, household conditions, socioeconomic status, mobility and health characteristics for 76 geographical units of analysis (neighbourhoods), using a lasso analysis to identify the most relevant variables. We then fitted a multivariate Quasi-Poisson model that explained the COVID-19 incidence by neighbourhood in relation to these variables.ResultsNeighbourhoods with: (1) greater population density, (2) an aged population structure, (3) a high presence of nursing homes, (4) high proportions of individuals who left their residential area during lockdown and/or (5) working in health-related occupations were more likely to register a higher number of cases of COVID-19. Conversely, COVID-19 incidence was negatively associated with (6) percentage of residents with post-secondary education and (7) population born in countries with a high Human Development Index.ConclusionLike other historical pandemics, the incidence of COVID-19 is associated with neighbourhood sociodemographic factors with a greater burden faced by already deprived areas. Because urban social and health injustices already existed in those geographical units with higher COVID-19 incidence in Barcelona, the current pandemic is likely to reinforce both health and social inequalities, and urban environmental injustice all together.
Although there is an extensive body of literature on the use of to measure the impact of housing conditions on well-being in later life, less is known about differences and similarities between sub-populations and national contexts. By means of a cross-European analysis (EU15), this study aims to examine how objective and subjective factors of living conditions shape the perceptions of older Europeans about the adequacy of their residential environment. Two patterns of housing quality are explored: (1) international heterogeneity of the EU15 countries, and (2) intra-national heterogeneity, where we distinguish between households at risk of poverty and those not at risk in the elderly population of these countries. Data were drawn from the 2007 wave of the survey, providing a sample of more than 58,000 individuals aged 65 years and older. The housing characteristics surveyed were reduced using tetrachoric correlations in a principal component analysis. The resulting predictors, as well as control variables (including gender, age, health status and tenure), are assessed using multiple linear regression analysis to explore their association with a high or low level of residential satisfaction. Despite a generally positive assessment by older Europeans of their living space, major geographic and household income differences existed in the factors that explained residential satisfaction. Identifying factors associated with residential satisfaction in different household income groups and national contexts may facilitate the development of EU policies that attempt to make 'ageing in place' a viable and suitable option for older Europeans.
The aim of this paper is to connect two processes that have been analysed independently to date and that have characterised the housing experience of the Spanish population. On the one hand, the consequences induced by the high density of Spanish urban spaces on other spatial spheres of people's lives and on the other hand, the traditional presence and the recent expansion of second home possession. In this context, we will demonstrate that, in Spain, a strong statistical relationship has been established between the location of main dwellings in a very dense urban context and a greater probability of having second homes. This relationship is better known in the scientific literature as the 'compensation hypothesis'. Copyright (c) 2007 by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG.
Recent foreign immigration has become the most important sociodemographic process in Spain. It impinges on many different social aspects, among them, the interrelationship between housing and population. More than 5 million immigrants have arrived during the last 10 years, responsible for about half of new households created since 2001. The size of Spanish demographic change due to immigration, as well as the predominance of a housing model based on home ownership, justifies the interest of the study. Attention will be focused on access to home ownership by long‐standing immigrants, who arrived between 1981 and 1991, observed in the 1991 and 2001 censuses, and compared with Spaniards. Their residential patterns can help us to predict the impact of the current immigration on the Spanish housing system. The conclusions point towards the beginning of a new heterogeneity in the Spanish housing system caused by a deficit of assimilation of the households with immigratory antecedents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
INTRODUCCIÓNSituarse disciplinariamente en la geodemografía, la demografía geográ-fica o la geografía de la población, es decir, a caballo entre la población y el territorio, siempre ha ofrecido retos de tipo epistemológico. Actualmente creo que son relevantes tres de ellos: a) la definición demográfica de población y el análisis de sus comportamientos, debido a la importancia creciente de las migraciones (Cabré, 1999;Ortega, 2006), b) la diferenciación funcional entre poblaciones urbanas y rurales, por los procesos de metropolización y el mayor peso de criterios como el de accesibilidad (Champion, Hugo, 2004), y c) la adscripción territorial de los habitantes usada en la construcción de las poblaciones locales y regionales, cuestionada por la expansión de la movilidad individual. De las tres dimensiones de cambio, quizá se ha insistido menos en la tercera, cómo la banalización de la movilidad espacial, que podemos interpretar como una cierta dispersión del 1. Este artículo es una reelaboración basada en la ponencia "Movilidad espacial: uso temporal del territorio y poblaciones vinculadas", leída en el X Congreso de la Población Española (Pamplona, junio-julio 2006). La ponencia se enmarcó en el proyecto I+D del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, nº BSO2003-03443/CPSO: Vivienda, movilidad espacial y migraciones, y la reelaboración para el presente artículo se relaciona con el proyecto I+D del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, nº SEJ2007-60119/GEOG Análisis demográfico de las necesidades de vivienda en España, 2005de vivienda en España, -2015
The increase of the proportion of rental-occupied dwellings between 2001 and 2011 is one of the most outstanding results of the 2011 Spanish census. This study aims to explain this increase in tenancy, unveiling the sociodemographic factors behind this pattern at the individual level, and at the regional level clarifying the role of market dynamics in this change. Accordingly, using the microdata from the 2001 and 2011 Spanish censuses, multilevel logistic models are estimated. Two main findings can be drawn from this study: the recent increase in tenancy occurs concurrently with a process of convergence towards a greater acceptance of tenancy among sociodemographic groups, and changes in housing purchase prices have an impact on the likelihood of a young Spanish couple being tenants. The policy implications of these findings are twofold. On the one hand, a more active role in the regulation of housing purchase prices to deter speculative demand is needed. On the other, a greater demand for tenancy requires changes in the tenure composition of Spanish housing stock. Finally, having effective alternatives to homeownership, young adults could rely less upon family networks during the transition to adulthood which could ultimately contribute to a reduction in late parental home-leaving and encourage family formation.
Southern European countries (SEC) are often considered as a homogenous group, distinct from the rest of Europe, in the literature of housing studies. This article explores the idea that despite sharing cohesion factors, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain also displayed a significant degree of heterogeneity in their housing patterns at the outset of the current economic crisis.
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