We evaluated behavioral responses of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to sublethal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite using an image analysis biomonitoring system (IABS). First, the limits of normal variation in swimming activity of zebrafish were determined by monitoring traveled distance of 40 control fishes using the IABS. An acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC(50(24 h)) for D. rerio to NaOCl. To evaluate the toxic effects in swimming activity, 32 fishes were exposed to 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% of the LC(50 )and 32 were used as control using the IABS. We considered toxic concentrations where more than 10% intervals of the treated group were below the limits of normal variation and were significantly different from the control group. Two main responses were observed: an escape response (increased swimming activity) at 10% treated group, a gradual decrease in swimming activity from the 20% of the LC(50) on, and an avoidance response at higher concentrations. The response of the 20% treated group were considered as a NOAEL and responses of the 30% and 40% treated groups indicated significant hypoactivity (adverse effect). This behavioral biomonitoring system has proven to be a useful tool to detect sublethal toxicity that could be incorporated in biomonitoring protocols in Brazil.
RESUMOComo ações de saneamento são escassas ou inexistentes no meio rural, o monitoramento das fontes de água permite o diagnóstico dos riscos e da precariedade das situações de saneamento. Neste estudo foi monitorado sazonalmente a qualidade da água dos poços da comunidade rural "Cinturão Verde" por meio de análises físico-químicas, colimétricas, e parasitológicas para identificação de fontes de contaminação devido à ausência de meios adequados de saneamento. Foram analisadas amostras coletadas em quatro períodos sazonais e detectados coliformes acima dos padrões de potabilidade do Ministério da Saúde nos poços tubulares em três dos quatro períodos sazonais. Foi detectada também a presença de parasita no período seco. Os parâmetros físico-químicos também estavam fora dos padrões da legislação em algumas estações, e foi constatado que esses riscos eram devido à inexistência de serviços de saneamento como: abastecimento com poços sem tratamento, precariedade de esgotamento e proximidade dos mananciais à criação de animais. Conclui-se que o monitoramento permitiu detectar períodos de riscos no uso de águas dos poços, avaliar diferenças regionais, e a necessidade de medidas de desinfecção da água antes de ser utilizada. Estas medidas de saneamento rural podem garantir a proteção dos mananciais de águas subterrâneas.Palavras-chave:águas subterrâneas, qualidade sanitária, saneamento, saúde ambiental.
The monitoring of water wells as health evaluation strategy in RuralCommunity in São Luís City, MA, Brazil
ABSTRACTAs sanitation is scarce or nonexistent in a rural environment, the monitoring of water sources allows for the diagnosis of risks and precarious sanitation situations. This study
Recently, the P2X(7) receptor has been reported to be associated with chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Because Rheedia longifolia extract has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the in vitro inhibitory potential of methanol extract and fractions from its leaves on the P2X(7) purinergic receptor. The activity of P2X(7) was studied with a dye uptake assay and with the whole-cell patch clamp technique in mouse peritoneal macrophages treated with methanol extract of R. longifolia leaves and fractions. The dye uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The R. longifolia extract and some fractions showed an inhibitory effect on the P2X(7) purinergic receptor in a dose-dependent manner. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the most potent inhibitory effects. The methanol extract and the butanol fraction showed the same inhibitory effects, despite their lower potency compared with the other fractions. The R. longifolia extract and some of its fractions may be anti-inflammatory because of their inhibitory effect on the P2X(7) receptor. Further investigation is needed to determine the pattern of inhibition and selectivity. Chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of bisflavonoids in the methanol extract fractions. A member of this chemical family is the most probable active compound responsible for the P2X(7) inhibitory effects present in the R. Longifolia extract and fractions.
The Hyporheic Zone is among the most important interstitial freshwater habitats, but the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors in this zone remains under-explored. Enterobacteria were expected to be present, but no specific studies had ever confirmed this prediction. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in hyporheic water and to determine the relationship of the physical, chemical and environmental factors at different depths in a rainforest stream. To this end, thirty-six water samples were collected at three depths in sites located in the first, second and third orders in diverse substrates. The total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. were evaluated in terms of their CFU/ml. In the interstitial samples, coliforms were detected in 100% of the samples. The total coliform counts had higher values at intermediate depths, while E. coli and Salmonella spp. instead had higher values at intermediate and large depths, often reaching or exceeding the values of the surface samples. Our results revealed that Salmonella spp. and the coliforms have different microhabitat preferences. Salmonella spp. and coliform species prefer deposition areas, such as lateral sides of pools, curves and bars, but they have a tendency to distribute into different depths, likely due to temperature differences. Salmonella spp. prefer compact substrata, with fewer fluids passing through and with upwelling areas with lower oxygen inflow. The coliform species showed the opposite preference. Our results suggest that bacterial variation is related to environmental factors and physical-chemical parameters within the HZ and may play a key role in the microbial diversity and distribution in these ecosystems.
Schistosomiasis is a disease endemic in several states of Brazil. The population control of the transmitter mollusks is done with Bayluscide WP 70®, in the control programs. OMS preconize molluscicidal assays using Becker with 500 mL of final volume, restringing the number of natural products and synthetic drugs to be tested in function of high quantity of material necessary. A new technique to assess the toxic effects for Biomphalaria sp. is the purpose of this work, for developing adaptation for this aquatic organism, using a low volume of test solution in 24-well plates. We used Biomphalaria glabrata (10–12 mm size) in a static system, consisting of the following components: Becker containing 10 snails or 24-well plates where snails were individualized for a volume of 2 mL per well for 24 and 48 hours. For the assays, we added aqueous solutions of Bayluscide WP 70, at a concentration of 1–5 mg/L, distilled water, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. Data were evaluated using Kappa's coefficient, Z factor validation, and comparison study. This technique to assess the toxic effect has proven to be a useful tool to detect lethal and sublethal effects, which could be used as a new evaluation protocol.
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