The particle filter was popularized in the early 1990s and has been used for solving estimation problems ever since. The standard algorithm can be understood and implemented with limited effort due to the widespread availability of tutorial material and code examples. Extensive research has advanced the standard particle filter algorithm to improve its performance and applicability in various ways in the years after. As a result, selecting and implementing an advanced version of the particle filter that goes beyond the standard algorithm and fits a specific estimation problem requires either a thorough understanding or reviewing large amounts of the literature. The latter can be heavily time consuming especially for those with limited hands-on experience. Lack of implementation details in theory-oriented papers complicates this task even further. The goal of this tutorial is facilitating the reader to familiarize themselves with the key concepts of advanced particle filter algorithms and to select and implement the right particle filter for the estimation problem at hand. It acts as a single entry point that provides a theoretical overview of the filter, its assumptions and solutions for various challenges encountered when applying particle filters. Besides that, it includes a running example that demonstrates and implements many of the challenges and solutions.
The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle’s surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.
This paper investigates the impact of fast parameter identification methods, which do not require any forward simulations, on model-based glucose control, using retrospective data in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit. The integral-based identification method has been previously clinically validated and extensively applied in a number of biomedical applications; and is a crucial element in the presented model-based therapeutics approach. Common non-linear regression and gradient descent approaches are too computationally intense and not suitable for the glucose control applications presented. The main focus in this paper is on better characterizing and understanding the importance of the integral in the formulation and the effect it has on model-based drug therapy control. As a comparison, a potentially more natural derivative formulation which has the same computation speed advantages is investigated, and is shown to go unstable with respect to modelling error which is always present clinically. The integral method remains robust.
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