A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate whether Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), an effective cognitive-behavioral treatment for suicidal individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), would also be effective for drug-dependent women with BPD when compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU) in the community. Subjects were randomly assigned to either DBT or TAU for a year of treatment. Subjects were assessed at 4, 8, and 12 months, and at a 16-month follow-up. Subjects assigned to DBT had significantly greater reductions in drug abuse measured both by structured interviews and urinalyses throughout the treatment year and at follow-up than did subjects assigned to TAU. DBT also maintained subjects in treatment better than did TAU, and subjects assigned to DBT had significantly greater gains in global and social adjustment at follow-up than did those assigned to TAU. DBT has been shown to be more effective than treatment-as-usual in treating drug abuse in this study, providing more support for DBT as an effective treatment for severely dysfunctional BPD patients across a range of presenting problems.
In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicited emotional response. We emphasize environmental factors, specifically aversive control and private verbal events, in terms of relational frame theory, that may transform an adaptive response into a maladaptive disorder. We consider the role of negative thought processes and rumination, common and debilitating aspects of depression that have traditionally been neglected by behavior analysts.
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