The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major
dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here
we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome
sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans
437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to
the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone
frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent
whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and
transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some
specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a
unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and
regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable
genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit
Multigenic programs controlling susceptibility to apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation have not yet been defined. Here, using DNA microarrays, we show gene expression patterns in an apoptosis-sensitive and apoptosis-resistant murine B cell lymphoma model system both before and after irradiation. From the 11,000 genes interrogated by the arrays, two major patterns emerged. First, before radiation exposure the radioresistant LYar cells expressed significantly greater levels of message for several genes involved in regulating intracellular redox potential. Compared with LYas cells, LYar cells express 20-to 50-fold more mRNA for the tetraspanin CD53 and for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Expression of both of these genes can lead to the increase of total cellular glutathione, which is the principle intracellular antioxidant and has been shown to inhibit many forms of apoptosis. A second pattern emerged after radiation, when the apoptosis-sensitive LYas cells induced rapid expression of a unique cluster of genes characterized by their involvement in mitochondrial electron transport. Some of these genes have been previously recognized as proapoptotic; however others, such as uncoupling protein 2, were not previously known to be apoptotic regulatory proteins. From these observations we propose that a multigenic program for sensitivity to apoptosis involves induction of transcripts for genes participating in mitochondrial uncoupling and loss of membrane potential. This program triggers mitochondrial release of apoptogenic factors and induces the ''caspase cascade.'' Conversely, cells resistant to apoptosis down-regulate these biochemical pathways, while activating pathways for establishment and maintenance of high intracellular redox potential by means of elevated glutathione.
Tin and its compounds hold promise for the development of high-capacity anode materials that could replace graphitic carbon used in current lithium-ion batteries. However, the introduced porosity in current electrode designs to buffer the volume changes of active materials during cycling does not afford high volumetric performance. Here, we show a strategy leveraging a sulfur sacrificial agent for controlled utility of void space in a tin oxide/graphene composite anode. In a typical synthesis using the capillary drying of graphene hydrogels, sulfur is employed with hard tin oxide nanoparticles inside the contraction hydrogels. The resultant graphene-caged tin oxide delivers an ultrahigh volumetric capacity of 2123 mAh cm–3 together with good cycling stability. Our results suggest not only a conversion-type composite anode that allows for good electrochemical characteristics, but also a general synthetic means to engineering the packing density of graphene nanosheets for high energy storage capabilities in small volumes.
Traditional Chinese medicinal plants are sources of biologically active compounds, providing raw material for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance industries. The endophytes of medicinal plants participate in biochemical pathways and produce analogous or novel bioactive compounds. Panxi plateau in South-west Sichuan in China with its unique geographical and climatological characteristics is a habitat of a great variety of medicinal plants. In this study, 560 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from 26 medicinal plant species in Panxi plateau. 60 isolates were selected for 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis and 14 representative strains were chosen for 16S rDNA sequencing. According to the phylogenetic analysis, seven isolates were Streptomyces sp., while the remainder belonged to genera Micromonospora, Oerskovia, Nonomuraea, Promicromonospora and Rhodococcus. Antimicrobial activity analysis combined with the results of amplifying genes coding for polyketide synthetase (PKS-I, PKS-II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that endophytic actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants in Panxi plateau had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and potential natural product diversity, which further proved that endophytic actinomycetes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds.
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