Lymphatic vessels are highly responsive to changes in the interstitial environment. Previously, we showed renal lymphatics express the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter. Since interstitial sodium retention is a hallmark of proteinuric injury, we examined whether renal sodium affects NKCC1 expression and the dynamic pumping function of renal lymphatic vessels. Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-injected rats served as a model of proteinuric kidney injury. Sodium 23Na/1H-MRI was used to measure renal sodium and water content in live animals. Renal lymph, which reflects the interstitial composition, was collected, and the sodium analyzed. The contractile dynamics of isolated renal lymphatic vessels were studied in a perfusion chamber. Cultured lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were used to assess direct sodium effects on NKCC1. MRI showed elevation in renal sodium and water in PAN. In addition, renal lymph contained higher sodium, although the plasma sodium showed no difference between PAN and controls. High sodium decreased contractility of renal collecting lymphatic vessels. In LECs, high sodium reduced phosphorylated NKCC1 and SPAK, an upstream activating kinase of NKCC1, and eNOS, a downstream effector of lymphatic contractility. The NKCC1 inhibitor furosemide showed a weaker effect on ejection fraction in isolated renal lymphatics of PAN vs controls. High sodium within the renal interstitium following proteinuric injury is associated with impaired renal lymphatic pumping that may, in part, involve the SPAK-NKCC1-eNOS pathway, which may contribute to sodium retention and reduce lymphatic responsiveness to furosemide. We propose that this lymphatic vessel dysfunction is a novel mechanism of impaired interstitial clearance and edema in proteinuric kidney disease.
As an integral part of the vascular system, the lymphatic vasculature is essential for tissue fluid homeostasis, nutritional lipid assimilation and immune regulation. The composition of the lymphatic vasculature includes fluid-absorbing initial lymphatic vessels (LVs), transporting collecting vessels and anti-regurgitation valves. Although, in recent decades, research has drastically enlightened our view of LVs, investigations of initial LVs, also known as lymphatic capillaries, have been stagnant due to technical limitations. In the kidney, the lymphatic vasculature mainly presents in the cortex, keeping the local balance of fluid, solutes and immune cells. The contribution of renal LVs to various forms of pathology, especially chronic kidney diseases, has been addressed in previous studies, however with diverging and inconclusive results. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in the proliferation and permeability of lymphatic capillaries as well as their influencing factors. Novel technologies to visualize and measure LVs function are described. Then, we highlight the role of the lymphatic network in renal fibrosis and the crosstalk between kidney and other organs, such as gut and heart.
BackgroundPatients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are characterized with high risk of heart failure. Although mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists have beneficial effect on relieving cardiac fibrosis and, thus, reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cardiac death, the therapeutic benefits and adverse effects are still controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to measure the safety and efficacy of spironolactone in patients undergoing dialysis.MethodsA systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Primary outcomes included changes in all-cause mortality (ACM), serum potassium concentration, incidence of hyperkalemia and gynecomastia (GYN). Secondary outcomes included changes in blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were further conducted. This research was registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; No. CRD42021287493).ResultsFifteen RCTs with 1,258 patients were enrolled in this pooled-analysis. Spironolactone treatment significantly decreased ACM (RR = 0.42, P < 0.0001), CCV (RR = 0.54, P = 0.008) and LVMI (MD = −6.28, P = 0.002), also increased occurrence of GYN (RR = 4.36, P = 0.0005). However, LVEF (MD = 2.63, P = 0.05), systolic BP (MD = −4.61, P = 0.14) and diastolic BP (MD = −0.12, P = 0.94) did not change between two groups after treatment. Although serum potassium concentration was increased (MD = 0.22, P < 0.0001) after spironolactone supplement, the risk of hyperkalemia remained unchanged (RR = 1.21, P = 0.31). Further subgroup analysis found more obvious advantageous as well as disadvantageous effects in Asian subjects than European or American ones. Also, with more than 9 months of treatment duration, patients achieved more favorable influence than shorter duration.ConclusionsThese results highlight the therapeutic effects of spironolactone on cardiovascular indexes, including ACM, CCV, and LVMI. However, the unignorable increase of GYN incidence and serum potassium level indicate that close monitor in dialysis-dependent patients, especially Asian patients, is essential.
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