Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a chilling-sensitive staple crop that originated in subtropical regions of Asia. Introduction of the chilling tolerance trait enables the expansion of rice cultivation to temperate regions. Here we report the cloning and characterization of HAN1, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that confers chilling tolerance on temperate japonica rice. HAN1 encodes an oxidase that catalyzes the conversion of biologically active jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the inactive form 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile (12OH-JA-Ile) and fine-tunes the JA-mediated chilling response. Natural variants in HAN1 diverged between indica and japonica rice during domestication. A specific allele from temperate japonica rice, which gained a putative MYB cis-element in the promoter of HAN1 during the divergence of the two japonica ecotypes, enhances the chilling tolerance of temperate japonica rice and allows it to adapt to a temperate climate. The results of this study extend our understanding of the northward expansion of rice cultivation and provide a target gene for the improvement of chilling tolerance in rice.
We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates’ tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions.
Elderly Diabetic peripheral neuropathy Fall risk Review a b s t r a c t Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was the most common complications of elderly diabetic, which could contribute to an increased risk of falling. Despite the increased prevalence of elderly diabetic, high risk of falls and serious consequences of falls in elderly with DPN, It is necessary to adopt means of reducing the risk of falls in elderly with DPN. Impaired balance in the elderly with DPN was the most important risk factor of increasing falls. This review will introduce the epidemiology of falls in elderly with DPN, analysis the reasons for high risk of falls in elderly with DPN, provide a review of the development of balance training in the intervention of fall risk in elderly with DPN and offer recommendations to medical personnels on how to provide an efficient balance training for elderly with DPN.
The study aims to develop and assess and validate a brief diabetic foot ulceration risk checklist among diabetic patients through a longitudinal study. Patients who had diabetes mellitus and had no foot ulceration and severe systematic disorders were recruited from eleven tertiary hospitals in nine provinces or municipalities of China. Internal consistency reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, item property, and measurement invariance of the tool were assessed. The predictive capability of the tool was validated by the follow-up data using the receiver operating characteristic curve. At baseline, 477 valid cases were collected. Twelve items were remained after initial selection. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.56. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the model had acceptable goodness-of-fit yet local dependency between two items. Item response theory showed that most items had acceptable discrimination and difficulty parameters. Differential item functioning showed that tool had measurement invariance. 278 were followed up one year after the baseline. Follow-up showed that one-year incidence of ulceration among the patients was 3.6%, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.61–0.93). The cut-off point of the tool was 4, when sensitivity and specificity were 0.62 and 0.75 respectively. The checklist has good psychometric properties according to mixed evidences from classical and modern test theory, and has good predictive capability.
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