We summarize and reanalyze observations bearing upon missing galactic baryons, where we propose a consistent picture for halo gas in L L* galaxies. The hot X-ray emitting halos are detected to 50-70 kpc, where typically, M hot (< 50 kpc) ∼ 5 × 10 9 M , and with density n ∝ r −3/2 . When extrapolated to R 200 , the gas mass is comparable to the stellar mass, but about half of the baryons are still missing from the hot phase. If extrapolated to 1.9-3R 200 , the baryon to dark matter ratio approaches the cosmic value. Significantly flatter density profiles are unlikely for R < 50 kpc and they are disfavored but not ruled out for R > 50 kpc. For the Milky Way, the hot halo metallicity lies in the range 0.3-1 solar for R < 50 kpc. Planck measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect toward stacked luminous galaxies (primarily early-type) indicate that most of their baryons are hot, near the virial temperature, and extend beyond R 200 . This stacked SZ signal is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that inferred from the X-ray observations of individual (mostly spiral) galaxies with M * > 10 11.3 M . This difference suggests that the hot halo properties are distinct for early and late type galaxies, possibly due to different evolutionary histories. For the cooler gas detected in UV absorption line studies, we argue that there are two absorption populations: extended halos; and disks extending to ∼ 50 kpc, containing most of this gas, and with masses a few times lower than the stellar masses. Such extended disks are also seen in 21 cm HI observations and in simulations.
Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution.Methods. We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands.Results. The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density.Conclusions. The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.
An ultrafast self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique offers scalable routes for the fabrication of mesoporous graphene directly from CO . Due to the excellent electrical conductivity and high ion-accessible surface area, supercapacitor electrodes based on the obtained graphene exhibit superior energy and power performance. The capacitance retention is higher than 90% after one million charge/discharge cycles.
Abstract. Based on the notion of accumulators, we propose a new cryptographic scheme called universal accumulators. This scheme enables one to commit to a set of values using a short accumulator and to efficiently compute a membership witness of any value that has been accumulated. Unlike traditional accumulators, this scheme also enables one to efficiently compute a nonmembership witness of any value that has not been accumulated. We give a construction for universal accumulators and prove its security based on the strong RSA assumption. We further present a construction for dynamic universal accumulators; this construction allows one to dynamically add and delete inputs with constant computational cost. Our construction directly builds upon Camenisch and Lysyanskaya's dynamic accumulator scheme. Universal accumulators can be seen as an extension to dynamic accumulators with support of nonmembership witness. We also give an efficient zero-knowledge proof protocol for proving that a committed value is not in the accumulator. Our dynamic universal accumulator construction enables efficient membership revocation in an anonymous fashion.
Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a cryptographic mechanism that enables remote authentication of a user while preserving privacy under the user's control. The DAA scheme developed by Brickell, Camenisch, and Chen has been adopted by the Trust Computing Group for remote anonymous attestation of Trusted Platform Module, which is a small hardware device with limited storage space and communication capability. In this paper, we provide two contributions to DAA. We first introduce simplified security notions of DAA including the formal definitions of user controlled anonymity and traceability. We then propose a new DAA scheme from elliptic curve cryptography and bilinear maps. The lengths of private keys and signatures in our scheme are much shorter than the lengths in the original DAA scheme, with a similar level of security and computational complexity. Our scheme builds upon the Camenisch-Lysyanskaya signature scheme and is efficient and provably secure in the random oracle model under the LRSW (stands for Lysyanskaya, Rivest, Sahai and Wolf) assumption and the decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption.
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