Alterations in the blood brain barrier and brain vasculature may be involved in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We sought to determine if vascular remodeling characterized by angiogenic vessels or increased vascular density, occurred in pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) postmortem human brain tissues. We examined brains of deceased, older catholic clergy from the Religious Order Study, a longitudinal clinical–pathological study of aging and AD. The hippocampus, midfrontal cortex, substantia nigra, globus pallidus and locus ceruleus were examined for integrin αvβ3 immunoreactivity, a marker of angiogenesis, and vascular densities. Activated microglia cell counts were also performed. All areas except the globus pallidus exhibited elevated αvβ3 immunoreactivity in AD cases compared with controls. Only in the hippocampus did the ongoing angiogenesis result in increased vascular density compared with controls. Vascular density was correlated with Aβ load in the hippocampus and αvβ3 reactivity was correlated with neurofibrillary tangles in the midfrontal cortex and in the substantia nigra. These data indicate that ongoing angiogenesis is present in brain regions affected by AD pathology and may be related to tissue injury.
A gene cluster (pol) essential for the biosynthesis of polyoxin, a nucleoside antibiotic widely used for the control of phytopathogenic fungi, was cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi. A 46,066-bp region was sequenced, and 20 of 39 of the putative open reading frames were defined as necessary for polyoxin biosynthesis as evidenced by its production in a heterologous host, Streptomyces lividans TK24. The role of PolO and PolA in polyoxin synthesis was demonstrated by in vivo experiments, and their functions were unambiguously characterized as O-carbamoyltransferase and UMP-enolpyruvyltransferase, respectively, by in vitro experiments, which enabled the production of a modified compound differing slightly from that proposed earlier. These studies should provide a solid foundation for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for polyoxin biosynthesis, and set the stage for combinatorial biosynthesis using genes encoding different pathways for nucleoside antibiotics.
The accuracy of a single diagnostic test for binary outcome can be summarized by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Volume under the surface and hypervolume under the manifold have been proposed as extensions for multiple class diagnosis (Scurfield, 1996, 1998). However, the lack of simple inferential procedures for such measures has limited their practical utility. Part of the difficulty is that calculating such quantities may not be straightforward, even with a single test. The decision rule used to generate the ROC surface requires class probability assessments, which are not provided by the tests. We develop a method based on estimating the probabilities via some procedure, for example, multinomial logistic regression. Bootstrap inferences are proposed to account for variability in estimating the probabilities and perform well in simulations. The ROC measures are compared to the correct classification rate, which depends heavily on class prevalences. An example of tumor classification with microarray data demonstrates that this property may lead to substantially different analyses. The ROC-based analysis yields notable decreases in model complexity over previous analyses.
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