Ultrasound is an informative technique for assessing muscles of patients in the ICU, and lower extremity muscles demonstrated increased homogeneity during ICU stays. This technique should be examined further for diagnosing and tracking those with ICU-AW.
The impact of domestic exposure to cat allergen (Fel d1) and house dust mite (Der p1) on wheezing from birth to the age of 4 years was investigated in a multicenter prospective birth cohort; 1,611 mothers were recruited before delivery in Ashford, England, and Barcelona and Menorca, Spain. Exposures were gathered via dust sample collection at children's home in their first year of life. Families provided complete outcome data (wheezing status in all 4 years) for 1,289 children. Domestic allergen levels varied substantially between centers. Six hundred three (47%) children never wheezed during their first 4 years of life. Der p1 did not correlate with any type of wheezing outcome. Fel d1 significantly increased the risk of wheezing in 3- and 4-year-olds in comparison to 1-year-olds. Distinct risk profiles were found for wheezing at different ages. Multivariate analysis revealed an interaction between Fel d1 and maternal asthma among children who wheeze in Year 4 (relative risk = 2.77; 95% confidence interval = 1.19-6.46). Our data support the idea that several patterns of wheezing with different risk profiles exist among young children. The effect of Fel d1 exposure varied according to age and maternal asthma.
The associations with environmental factors are consistent with the hypothesis that more crowded houses, increased family size and birth order, which may possibly increase early exposure to infections, may offer protection from subsequent development of eczema.
High exposure to rats is associated with lower rates of specific IgE and symptoms but an increased frequency of high specific IgG and IgG(4) production. Specific IgG(4) produced together with specific IgE may reduce the risk of developing work-related chest symptoms compared with when specific IgE is produced alone.
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