(2016) Skeletal muscle proteome and meat quality of broiler chickens subjected to gas stunning prior slaughter or slaughtered without stunning, CyTA -Journal of Food, 14:3, 375-381, DOI: 10.1080/19476337.2015 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10. 1080/19476337.2015 The study examined the effects of pre-slaughter gas stunning and slaughter without stunning on meat quality and skeletal muscle proteome of broiler chickens. Fifty Cobb broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a neck cut without pre-slaughter stunning (Halal slaughter) or preslaughter gas stunning followed by a neck cut. Samples of Pectoralis major muscle at 7 min, 4 h and 24 h postmortem were analyzed for pH, shear force, color, drip and cooking losses. Proteome profile of the 7 min samples was examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Birds subjected to Halal slaughter had higher (P < 0.05) redness than those gas stunned at 4 and 24 h postmortem. Gas-stunned birds had lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and shear force and higher (P < 0.05) drip and cooking losses compared with those subjected to Halal slaughter throughout postmortem storage. Gas stunning up-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of beta-enolase, pyruvate kinase and creatine kinase compared with Halal slaughter. Results indicate that pre-slaughter gas stunning hastened postmortem energy metabolism and had detrimental effects on the water holding capacity and redness of broiler breast muscles.Proteoma del músculo esquelético y calidad de la carne de pollos de engorde sujetos a aturdimiento por gas previo a la matanza o bien matados sin aturdimiento RÉSUMÉ Este estudio examinó los efectos de la matanza con previo aturdimiento por gas y la matanza sin aturdimiento en la calidad de la carne y el proteoma del músculo esquelético en pollos de engorde. Cincuenta pollos de engorde de Cobb fueron asignados de forma aleatoria para cortarles el cuello sin previo aturdimiento (matanza Halal) o con aturdimiento con gas previo a la matanza antes de cortarles el cuello. Se analizaron las muestras del músculo pectoral mayor a 7 min, 4 h y 24 h postmortem para el pH, la fuerza cortante, el color, la pérdida por goteo y de volumen en el cocinado. Se examinó el perfil del proteoma de las muestras de 7 min mediante dos electroforesis en gel poliacrilamida dimensionales. Las aves que estuvieron sujetas a matanza Halal tuvieron un color rojizo más fuerte (P < 0,05) que aquellas a las que aturdieron con gas después de 4 y 24 h postmortem. Las aves que aturdieron con gas tuvieron menor pH y fuerza cortante (P < 0,05) en el músculo y mayores (P < 0,05) pérdidas por goteo y de volumen en el cocinado en comparación con aquellas sujetas a matanza Halal mediante almacenamiento postmortem. El gas de aturdimiento reguló a la alta (P < 0,05) la expresión enolasa beta, la piruvatocinasa y la creatina quinasa en comparación con la matanza Halal. Los resultados indicaron que el aturdimiento por gas previo a la matanza aceleró el metabolismo de la energía postmortem y tuvo efectos perjudic...
BackgroundNaja kaouthia, Ophiophagus hannah, Bungarus fasciatus and Calloselasma rhodostoma are four venomous snakes indigenous to Malaysia. In the present study, their proteomic profile by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) have been separated and compared.ResultsThe 2-DE of venoms of the four species snake demonstrated complexity and obvious interspecies differences in proteome profiles. A total of 63 proteins were identified in the four species: C. rhodostoma – 26, N. kaouthia – 16, O. hannah – 15 and B. fasciatus – 6.ConclusionsDespite the identifications of major proteins in the four snake species, a large number of protein spots from the 2-DE were unidentified even though the spots displayed high-quality MALDI-TOF-MS spectra. Those identified included phospholipase A2 proteins in all four venoms, long neurotoxins in both cobra species and the C. rhodostoma venom found with the most varied types of peptidases, i.e. metalloproteinase kistomin, halystase and L-amino acid oxidase.
This study was conducted to evaluate the response of Bali bulls (Bos javanicus) to different semen collection methods and their effects on fresh and post-thawed semen quality. The collection methods employed were electro-ejaculation (EE), transrectal massage (RM) and RM followed by EE (RM + EE). A total of 25 untrained Bali bulls (age between 2 and 4 years old) were subjected to the different semen collection methods. Fresh semen samples from all the 25 bulls were evaluated for volume, pH, general motility, live/dead ratio and abnormality using the conventional method. For fresh and frozen samples collected by EE and RM from 10 bulls, computer-assisted semen analysis system was used for precise quantitative measurement of motility, velocity and forward progression. Accucell photometer was used to measure sperm concentration in all samples, regardless fresh and frozen. Semen samples were obtained 100% of the attempts using EE, 84% using RM and 96% using RM + EE. There were no differences among the collection methods for fresh semen quality characteristics, including motility, morphology and viability, but pH and volume were higher for EE than RM and RM + EE. Higher sperm concentration was observed in semen collected by RM than the other two methods. Different age groups (2-3 and >3-4 years old) of the bulls did not show significant differences in volume, pH, sperm concentration, percentages in motility, live/dead ratio and normal sperm morphology. The quality of semen for general and progressive motility, VAP, VSL and VCL and acrosomal integrity after thawing was higher for RM than EE. In conclusion, Bali bulls appeared to respond best to EE and the combination of RM + EE than RM, as a method of semen collection, with a shorter time of stimulation required. Differences in age of the Bali bulls did not affect the semen quality.
A B S T R A C TEurycoma longifolia or Tongkat Ali is famous for its aphrodisiac property and the traditional uses range from tonic after childbirth to treating malaria. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, alkaloids, squalene derivatives, tirucallane-type triterpenes and biphenylneolignans. Existing research revealed that plant has potential to treat various diseases and to replace the current treatment. Purpose of this article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures concerning phytochemical, biological and toxicological studies of E. longifolia. It is expected that critical evaluation will be useful for researchers working on the potential role of E. longifolia in treating diseases or for product development.
Abstract:In the present study, the effectiveness of Mimosa pudica tannins (MPT) in neutralizing the lethality of Naja kaouthia venom was compared with commercially derived tannins. Preincubation of MPT with N. kaouthia venom maintained 100% survival of mice after 24 hours. The mouse group in which there was no preincubation, no protection against the effects of the venom was observed. M. pudica tannin was found to be more effective in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom when compared to commercial tannic acid. Two protein spots were missing in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the MPT treated mouse indicating the down-regulation of venom proteins. The results from this study indicated that tannins obtained from M. pudica are better than tannic acid in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom in vitro. However, further investigations are required to establish that M. pudica has potential for treating N. kaouthia snakebites.
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