Inhabited islands depend primarily on fossil fuels for electricity generation and they also present frequently a vehicle fleet, which result in a significant environmental problem. To address this, several governments are investing in the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), but the combined integration of them creates challenges to the operation of these isolated grid systems. Thus, the aim of this paper is to propose an Electric Vehicle charging strategy considering high penetration of RES. The methodology proposes taxing CO2 emissions based on high pricing when the electricity is mostly generated by fossil fuels, and low pricing when there is a RES power excess. The Smart charging methodology for EV optimizes the total costs. Nine scenarios with different installed capacity of solar and wind power generation are evaluated and compared to cases of uncoordinated charging. The methodology was simulated in the Galapagos Islands, which is an archipelago of Ecuador, and recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as both aWorld Heritage site and a biosphere reserve. Simulations results demonstrate that the EV aggregator could reduce costs: 7.9% for a case of 5 MW installed capacity (wind and PV each), and 7% for a case of 10 MW installed (wind and PV each). Moreover, the use of excess of RES power for EV charging will considerably reduce CO2 emissions
The increase in global electricity consumption has made energy efficiency a priority for governments. Consequently, there has been a focus on the efficient integration of a massive penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) into energy markets. This study presents an assessment of various strategies for EV aggregators. In this analysis, the smart charging methodology proposed in a previous study is considered. The smart charging technique employs charging power rate modulation and considers user preferences. To adopt several strategies, this study simulates the effect of these actions in a case study of a distribution system from the city of Quito, Ecuador. Different actions are simulated, and the EV aggregator costs and technical conditions are evaluated.
This paper introduces a novel tool for industrial customers to perform a cost-benefit analysis regarding the implementation of Demand Response (DR) strategies in their facilities with the final goal of softening the impact of RES intermittency in the grid. The dynamic simulation tool focuses on assessing the participation of industries in reserve energy markets in the same conditions as generators offering capacity reserve, energy reserve or both of them and taking into account all the technical restrictions of production processes as well as possible extra costs due to the implementation of DR (additional labour cost, productivity losses, etc.) Main innovations of the methodology are the DR assessment carried out per process and the introduction of the "margin of decision" as a decision making strategy for the energy consumer. Along the paper, the methodology behind this tool is introduced step by step in order to show how the technical, economic and environmental analyses are performed. At the end, it is included the application of the methodology to a real paper factory in Germany. Results of the _________________________________
A transition to a sustainable energy system is essential. In this context, smart grids represent the future of power systems for efficiently integrating renewable energy sources and active consumer participation. Recently, different studies were performed that defined the conceptual architecture of power systems and their agents. However, these conceptual architectures do not overcome all issues for the development of new electricity markets. Thus, a novel conceptual architecture is proposed. The transactions of energy, operation services, and economic flows among the agents proposed are carefully analysed. In this regard, the results allow setting their activities’ boundaries and state their relationships with electricity markets. The suitability of implementing local electricity markets is studied to enforce competition among distributed energy resources by unlocking all the potential that active consumers have. The proposed architecture is designed to offer flexibility and efficiency to the system thanks to a clearly defined way for the exploitation of flexible resources and distributed generation. This upgraded architecture hereby proposed establishes the characteristics of each agent in the forthcoming markets and studies to overcome the barriers to the large deployment of renewable energy sources.
Current energy policies around the world are encouraging integration of renewable electricity generation into the power system. However, these resources are so unpredictable and variable that the need of more flexible resources increases. Demand Response (DR) resources may be a realistic solution, but increasing the credibility among agents by means of the standardization of DR procedures is necessary.This paper proposes a methodology based on an energy analysis of industrial processes to quantify and validate the flexibility potential of industrial customers in order to contribute to create a certification procedure. This methodology can be helpful for industrial customers themselves, energy service companies (ESCO) and DR aggregators, among others.The methodology was validated in three different factories whose industrial segments have a highenergy intensity in Europe: a paper factory (Klingele, Germany), a meat factory and a refrigerated logistics centre (Campofrio, Spain).
Isolated microgrids, such as islands, rely on fossil fuels for electricity generation and include vehicle fleets, which poses significant environmental challenges. To address this, distributed energy resources based on renewable energy and electric vehicles (EVs) have been deployed in several places. However, they present operational and planning concerns. Hence, the aim of this paper is to propose a two-level microgrid problem. The first problem considers an EV charging strategy that minimizes charging costs and maximizes the renewable energy use. The second level evaluates the impact of this charging strategy on the power generation planning of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. This planning model is simulated in HOMER Energy. The results demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of investing in additional photovoltaic (PV) generation and in the EV charging strategy. Investing in PV and smart charging for EVs could reduce the N P C by 13.58%, but a reduction in the N P C of the EV charging strategy would result in up to 3.12%.
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