The transcription factor RUNX2 (Cbfa1/AML3/Pebp-2␣A) is a critical regulator of osteoblast differentiation. We investigated the effect of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor ␣ (TNF) on the expression of RUNX2 because TNF is known to inhibit differentiation of osteoblasts from pluripotent progenitor cells. TNF treatment of fetal calvaria precursor cells or MC3T3-E1 clonal pre-osteoblastic cells caused a dose-dependent suppression of RUNX2 steady state mRNA as measured by reverse transcription-PCR. The IC 50 for TNF inhibition was 0.6 ng/ml. TNF suppression of RUNX2 mRNA was confirmed using Northern analysis. The effect of TNF was studied using isoform-specific primers that flanked unique regions of two major RUNX2 isoforms. TNF suppressed expression of the mRNA coding for the shorter MRIPV isoform by >90% while inhibiting expression of the mRNA for the longer MASNS isoform by 50%. RUNX2 nuclear content was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using a rat osteocalcin promoter binding sequence as probe and by Western analysis. TNF reduced nuclear RUNX2 protein. Inhibition of new protein synthesis with cycloheximide failed to prevent TNF inhibition of RUNX2 mRNA, suggesting that a newly translated protein did not mediate the TNF effect. RUNX2 mRNA half-life was 1.8 h and reduced to 0.9 h by TNF. The effect of TNF on RUNX2 gene transcription was evaluated using a 0.6-kb RUNX2 promoter-luciferase reporter in MC3T3-E1 cells. TNF caused a dose-dependent inhibition of transcription to 50% of control values. The inhibitory effect of TNF was preserved with deletions to nucleotide ؊108 upstream of the translational start site; however, localization downstream of nucleotide ؊108 was obscured by loss of basal activity. Our results indicate that TNF regulates RUNX2 expression at multiple levels including destabilization of mRNA and suppression of transcription. The disproportionate inhibition of RUNX2 nuclear protein suggests that additional post-transcriptional mechanisms may be occurring. Suppression of RUNX2 by TNF may decrease osteoblast differentiation and inhibit bone formation in TNF excess states.The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-␣ (TNF) 1 has been shown to contribute to bone loss through a variety of mechanisms that increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation. TNF has a major role as an inflammatory mediator in rheumatoid arthritis where increased bone resorption causes periarticular bone loss, and in postmenopausal osteoporosis in which there is generalized bone loss (1-5). In addition to the effects of TNF on bone resorption, TNF also inhibits the bone-forming function of osteoblasts. In mature osteoblasts TNF inhibits the expression of the skeletal matrix proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin, causes resistance to the genomic action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and increases the production of matrix metalloproteinases and pathologic paracrine factors (6 -11). We have shown previously that TNF inhibits the differentiation of new osteoblasts from precursor cells (1...
Bone tissue has the capacity to adapt to its functional environment such that its morphology is "optimized" for the mechanical demand. The adaptive nature of the skeleton poses an interesting set of biological questions (e.g., how does bone sense mechanical signals, what cells are the sensing system, what are the mechanical signals that drive the system, what receptors are responsible for transducing the mechanical signal, what are the molecular responses to the mechanical stimuli). Studies of the characteristics of the mechanical environment at the cellular level, the forces that bone cells recognize, and the integrated cellular responses are providing new information at an accelerating speed. This review first considers the mechanical factors that are generated by loading in the skeleton, including strain, stress and pressure. Mechanosensitive cells placed to recognize these forces in the skeleton, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and cells of the vasculature are reviewed. The identity of the mechanoreceptor(s) is approached, with consideration of ion channels, integrins, connexins, the lipid membrane including caveolar and noncaveolar lipid rafts and the possibility that altering cell shape at the membrane or cytoskeleton alters integral signaling protein associations. The distal intracellular signaling systems on-line after the mechanoreceptor is activated are reviewed, including those emanating from G-proteins (e.g., intracellular calcium shifts), MAPKs, and nitric oxide. The ability to harness mechanical signals to improve bone health through devices and exercise is broached. Increased appreciation of the importance of the mechanical environment in regulating and determining the structural efficacy of the skeleton makes this an exciting time for further exploration of this area.
Aging and a sedentary lifestyle conspire to reduce bone quantity and quality, decrease muscle mass and strength, and undermine postural stability, culminating in an elevated risk of skeletal fracture. Concurrently, a marked reduction in the available bone-marrow-derived population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) jeopardizes the regenerative potential that is critical to recovery from musculoskeletal injury and disease. A potential way to combat the deterioration involves harnessing the sensitivity of bone to mechanical signals, which is crucial in defining, maintaining and recovering bone mass. To effectively utilize mechanical signals in the clinic as a non-drug-based intervention for osteoporosis, it is essential to identify the components of the mechanical challenge that are critical to the anabolic process. Large, intense challenges to the skeleton are generally presumed to be the most osteogenic, but brief exposure to mechanical signals of high frequency and extremely low intensity, several orders of magnitude below those that arise during strenuous activity, have been shown to provide a significant anabolic stimulus to bone. Along with positively influencing osteoblast and osteocyte activity, these low-magnitude mechanical signals bias MSC differentiation towards osteoblastogenesis and away from adipogenesis. Mechanical targeting of the bone marrow stem-cell pool might, therefore, represent a novel, drug-free means of slowing the age-related decline of the musculoskeletal system.
A wide range of cell types depend on mechanically induced signals to enable appropriate physiological responses. The skeleton is particularly dependent on mechanical information to guide the resident cell population towards adaptation, maintenance and repair. Research at the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels has improved our understanding of how the skeleton can recognize the functional environment, and how these challenges are translated into cellular information that can site-specifically alter phenotype. This review first considers those cells within the skeleton that are responsive to mechanical signals, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and osteoprogenitors. This is discussed in light of a range of experimental approaches that can vary parameters such as strain, fluid shear stress, and pressure. The identity of mechanoreceptor candidates is approached, with consideration of integrins, pericellular tethers, focal adhesions, ion channels, cadherins, connexins, and the plasma membrane including caveolar and non-caveolar lipid rafts and their influence on integral signaling protein interactions. Several mechanically regulated intracellular signaling cascades are detailed including activation of kinases (Akt, MAPK, FAK), β-catenin, GTPases, and calcium signaling events. While the interaction of bone cells with their mechanical environment is complex, an understanding of mechanical regulation of bone signaling is crucial to understanding bone physiology, the etiology of diseases such as osteoporosis, and to the development of interventions to improve bone strength.
The ability of exercise to decrease fat mass and increase bone mass may occur through mechanical biasing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) away from adipogenesis and toward osteoblastogenesis. C3H10T1/2 MSCs cultured in highly adipogenic medium express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adiponectin mRNA and protein, and accumulate intracellular lipid. Mechanical strain applied for 6 h daily inhibited expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adiponectin mRNA by up to 35 and 50%, respectively, after 5 d. A decrease in active and total beta-catenin levels during adipogenic differentiation was entirely prevented by daily application of mechanical strain; furthermore, strain induced beta-catenin nuclear translocation. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta by lithium chloride or SB415286 also prevented adipogenesis, suggesting that preservation of beta-catenin levels was important to strain inhibition of adipogenesis. Indeed, mechanical strain inactivated glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, which was preceded by Akt activation, indicating that strain transmits antiadipogenic signals through this pathway. Cells grown under adipogenic conditions showed no increase in osteogenic markers runt-related transcription factor (Runx) 2 and osterix (Osx); subsequent addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 for 2 d increased Runx2 but not Osx expression in unstrained cultures. When cultures were strained for 5 d before bone morphogenetic protein 2 addition, Runx2 mRNA increased more than in unstrained cultures, and Osx expression more than doubled. As such, mechanical strain enhanced MSC potential to enter the osteoblast lineage despite exposure to adipogenic conditions. Our results indicate that MSC commitment to adipogenesis can be suppressed by mechanical signals, allowing other signals to promote osteoblastogenesis. These data suggest that positive effects of exercise on both fat and bone may occur during mesenchymal lineage selection.
IMPORTANCE Intravenous iron enables rapid correction of iron-deficiency anemia, but certain formulations induce fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated hypophosphatemia.OBJECTIVE To compare risks of hypophosphatemia and effects on biomarkers of mineral and bone homeostasis of intravenous iron isomaltoside (now known as ferric derisomaltose) vs ferric carboxymaltose.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Between October 2017 and June 2018, 245 patients aged 18 years and older with iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin level Յ11 g/dL; serum ferritin level Յ100 ng/mL) and intolerance or unresponsiveness to 1 month or more of oral iron were recruited from 30 outpatient clinic sites in the United States into 2 identically designed, open-label, randomized clinical trials. Patients with reduced kidney function were excluded. Serum phosphate and 12 additional biomarkers of mineral and bone homeostasis were measured on days 0,
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), associated with skeletal fragility and hematologic insufficiency, remains poorly understood and difficult to quantify. We tested the response of MAT to high fat diet (HFD) and exercise using a novel volumetric analysis, and compared it to measures of bone quantity. We hypothesized that HFD would increase MAT and diminish bone quantity, while exercise would slow MAT acquisition and promote bone formation. Eight week-old female C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular (RD) or HFD, and exercise groups were provided voluntary access to running wheels (RD-E, HFD-E). Femoral MAT was assessed by μCT (lipid binder osmium) using a semi-automated approach employing rigid co-alignment, regional bone masks and was normalized for total femoral volume (TV) of the bone compartment. MAT was 2.6-fold higher in HFD relative to RD mice. Exercise suppressed MAT in RD-E mice by more than half compared with RD. Running similarly inhibited MAT acquisition in HFD mice. Exercise significantly increased bone quantity in both diet groups. Thus, HFD caused significant accumulation of MAT; importantly running exercise limited MAT acquisition while promoting bone formation during both diets. That MAT is exquisitely responsive to diet and exercise, and its regulation by exercise appears to be inversely proportional to effects on exercise induced bone formation, is relevant for an aging and sedentary population.
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