Differentiation of coffee according to its quality can result in added value. Both the coffee genotype and the environment influence beverage quality. The main species grown in the Amazon region is C. canephora, which includes two distinct botanical varieties: Conilon and Robusta. The aim of this study was to characterize beverage quality in C. canephora and distinguish the Conilon and Robusta botanical varieties and intervarietal hybrids. We evaluated the beverage quality of 130 superior clones from samples of hulled coffee collected in the experimental field of Embrapa Rondônia in the municipality of Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brazil. The beverage was classified according to the Robusta Cupping Protocols, which also considers the nuances of the beverage, described as neutral, fruit-like, exotic, refined, and mild. The final mean values classified the Robusta botanical variety and the intervarietal hybrids as coffees with a premium beverage, and the Conilon botanical variety as usual good quality. The nuances of the Conilon botanical variety were found to be predominantly neutral (78%), as compared to the Robusta botanical variety and the intervarietal hybrids, which exhibited 50% and 44% of their beverages, respectively, with fruit-like, exotic, or mild nuances. The genetic parameters indicate that the genetic component was more important than the environmental in expression of coffee quality attributes. Genetic variability was observed in the population evaluated, except for the Uniform Cup and Clean Cup beverage attributes. Termos para indexação: Cafés especiais, melhoramento de plantas, parâmetros genéticos, conilon, robusta.
The present investigation characterized the diterpene profile of Coffea canephora coffees, which are natural intervarietal hybrids of Conilon and Robusta. The impact of genetic diversity and environment on these compounds was also evaluated. Five genotypes (clones 03, 05, 08, 25, and 66) from six growing sites in the State of Rondônia in the western Amazon (Alto Alegre dos Parecis, São Miguel do Guaporé, Nova Brasilândia do Oeste, Porto Velho, Rolim de Moura, and Alto Paraíso) were analyzed. The contents of kahweol, cafestol, and 16-O-methylcafestol in light-medium roasted coffees were assessed by UPLC. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). The contents of cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol ranged from 96 to 457 mg 100 g−1 and 75 to 433 mg 100 g−1, respectively. As for kahweol, from absence up to contents of 36.9 mg 100 g−1 was observed. The diterpene profile was dependent on genetics, growing site, and the interaction between these factors. A higher variability was observed for kahweol contents. The natural intervarietal hybrid coffees stood out for their high contents of diterpenes and increased frequency of kahweol presence (77% of the samples).
Most of the Western Amazon coffee production is made from growing unregistered clones, selected by the coffee growers themselves. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensory profile and genetic diversity of the most cultivated Coffea canephora clones in the Western Amazon. Coffee samples at cherry stage of the clones 03, 05, 08, 25 and 66 were collected at eight municipalities in the main coffee growing zones, with altitudes ranging from 86 to 381 meters. Beverage quality was evaluated according to the Robusta Cupping Protocols and estimates of the genotype × environment interaction (GE) were made interpreting non-parametric and multivariate methods. The GE interaction was significant and the genetic component was also important to the expression of beverage quality (h 2 =82,23). The clones 25 and 05 have good attributes and mean score near 80 points. Sweetness was the sensory descriptor with the greatest impact on beverage quality of these two clones. Harshness was the descriptor that had the greatest negative impact on beverage quality of clone 66. The clones had complexities that differed and that were not necessarily associated with greater beverage quality. Despite the differences in their beverage attributes, these clones that are grown for their high productivity presented low genetic diversity of the beverage quality.
O estado de Rondônia tem se destacado nos últimos anos no cenário da cafeicultura nacional em função de melhorias na produtividade das lavouras e qualidade da bebida dos Coffea canephora produzidos. Devido as suas condições edafoclimáticas, Rondônia produz as duas variedades comerciais de C. canephora, Conilon e Robusta, o que permitiu a hibridização natural a campo entre variedades. Na literatura há pouca disponibilidade de dados de diterpenos em café torrado, notadamente para C. canephora. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar cafés C. canephora híbridos naturais de Conilon e Robusta quanto aos teores de diterpenos. Três genótipos (clones 03, 08 e 25) provenientes de dois locais de cultivo (Cacoal e Ouro Preto) foram estudados. Os cafés torrados foram avaliados quanto aos teores de cafestol, caveol e 16-O-metilcafestol por CLUE. Os resultados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (p ≤ 0,05). Os teores de cafestol e 16-O-metilcafestol variaram de 224 a 381 mg 100 g-1 e de 258 a 356 mg 100 g-1, respectivamente. Para caveol observou-se desde ausência até 30,4 mg 100 g-1. O teor de diterpenos sofreu influência da genética e local de cultivo, e verificou-se interação entre genótipo e ambiente. Entre os diterpenos avaliados, caveol apresentou a maior variabilidade. O clone 25 apresentou presença dos três diterpenos nos dois locais de cultivo estudados, destacando-se pelos maiores teores de caveol. No geral, os híbridos apresentaram altos teores de diterpenos, notadamente 16-O-metilcafestol, em comparação ao relatado na literatura para as variedades Conilon e Robusta da espécie C. canephora.
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