Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) require ultra-low end-to-end delays and multi-gigabit-per-second data transmission. Millimetre Waves (mmWaves) communications can fulfil these requirements. However, the increased mobility of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs), requires frequent beamforming -thus introducing increased overhead. In this paper, a new beamforming algorithm is proposed able to achieve overhead-free beamforming training. Leveraging from the CAVs sensory data, broadcast with Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) beacons, the position and the motion of a CAV can be estimated and beamform accordingly. To minimise the position errors, an analysis of the distinct error components was presented. The network performance is further enhanced by adapting the antenna beamwidth with respect to the position error. Our algorithm outperforms the legacy IEEE 802.11ad approach proving it a viable solution for the future ITS applications and services.
Millimetre Waves (mmWave) systems have the potential of enabling multi-gigabit-per-second communications in future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs). Unfortunately, because of the increased vehicular mobility, they require frequent antenna beam realignments -thus significantly increasing the in-band Beamforming (BF) overhead. In this paper, we propose Smart Motion-prediction Beam Alignment (SAMBA), a MAC-layer algorithm that exploits the information broadcast via DSRC beacons by all vehicles. Based on these information, overhead-free BF is achieved by estimating the position of the vehicle and predicting its motion. Moreover, adapting the beamwidth with respect to the estimated position can further enhance the performance. Our investigation shows that SAMBA outperforms the IEEE 802.11ad BF strategy, increasing the data rate by more than twice for sparse vehicle density while enhancing the network throughput proportionally to the number of vehicles. Furthermore, SAMBA was proven to be more efficient compared to legacy BF algorithm under highly dynamic vehicular environments and hence, a viable solution for future ITS services.
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) will play a crucial role in next-generation Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs). Not only is the information exchange fundamental to improve road safety and efficiency, but it also paves the way to a wide spectrum of advanced ITS applications enhancing efficiency, mobility and accessibility. Highly dynamic network topologies and unpredictable wireless channel conditions entail numerous design challenges and open questions. In this paper, we address the beneficial interactions between CAVs and an ITS and propose a novel architecture design paradigm. Our solution can accommodate multi-layer applications over multiple Radio Access Technologies (RATs) and provide a smart configuration interface for enhancing the performance of each RAT.
Millimeter Waves (mmWaves) will play a pivotal role in the next-generation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs). However, in deep urban environments, sensitivity to blockages creates the need for more sophisticated network planning. In this paper, we present an agile strategy for deploying road-side nodes in a dense city scenario. In our system model, we consider strict Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints (e.g. high throughput, low latency) that are typical of ITS applications. Our approach is scalable, insofar that takes into account the unique road and building shapes of each city, performing well for both regular and irregular city layouts. It allows us not only to achieve the required QoS constraints but it also provides up to 50% reduction in the number of nodes required, compared to existing deployment solutions.
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) require continuous access to sensory data to perform complex high-speed maneuvers and advanced trajectory planning. High priority CAVs are particularly reliant on extended perception horizon facilitated by sensory data exchange between CAVs. Existing technologies such as the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) are ill-equipped to provide advanced cooperative perception service. This creates the need for more sophisticated technologies such as the 5G Millimetre-Waves (mmWaves). In this work, we propose a distributed Vehicleto-Vehicle (V2V) mmWaves association scheme operating in a heterogeneous manner. Our system utilises the information exchanged within the DSRC frequency band to bootstrap the best CAV pairs formation. Using a Stable Fixtures Matching Game, we form V2V multipoint-to-multipoint links. Compared to more traditional point-to-point links, our system provides almost twice as much sensory data exchange capacity for high priority CAVs while doubling the mmWaves channel utilisation for all the vehicles in the network.
As we move towards autonomous vehicles, a reliable Vehicleto-Everything (V2X) communication framework becomes of paramount importance. In this paper we present the development and the performance evaluation of a real-world vehicular networking testbed. Our testbed, deployed in the heart of the City of Bristol, UK, is able to exchange sensor data in a V2X manner. We will describe the testbed architecture and its operational modes. Then, we will provide some insight pertaining the firmware operating on the network devices. The system performance has been evaluated under a series of large-scale field trials, which have proven how our solution represents a low-cost high-quality framework for V2X communications. Our system managed to achieve high packet delivery ratios under different scenarios (urban, rural, highway) and for different locations around the city. We have also identified the instability of the packet transmission rate while using single-core devices, and we present some future directions that will address that.
Future Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) will be supervised by cloud-based systems overseeing the overall security and orchestrating traffic flows. Such systems rely on data collected from CAVs across the whole city operational area. This paper develops a Fog Computing-based infrastructure for future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) enabling an agile and reliable off-load of CAV data. Since CAVs are expected to generate large quantities of data, it is not feasible to assume data off-loading to be completed while a CAV is in the proximity of a single Road-Side Unit (RSU). CAVs are expected to be in the range of an RSU only for a limited amount of time, necessitating data reconciliation across different RSUs, if traditional approaches to data off-load were to be used. To this end, this paper proposes an agile Fog Computing infrastructure, which interconnects all the RSUs so that the data reconciliation is solved efficiently as a by-product of deploying the Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) technique. Our numerical results confirm the feasibility of our solution and show its effectiveness when operated in a large-scale urban testbed.
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