There is a need to better understand particle size distributions (PSDs) from turbulent flames from a theoretical, practical and even regulatory perspective. Experiments were conducted on a sooting turbulent non-premixed swirled ethylene flame with secondary (dilution) air injection to investigate exhaust and in-burner PSDs measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and soot volume fractions (fv) using extinction measurements. The focus was to understand the effect of systematically changing the amount and location of dilution air injection on the PSDs and fv inside the burner and at the exhaust. The PSDs were also compared with planar Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) calibrated against the average fv. LII provides some supplemental information on the relative soot amounts and spatial distribution among the various flow conditions that helps interpret the results. For the flame with no air dilution, fv drops gradually along the centreline of the burner towards the exhaust and the PSD shows a shift from larger particles to smaller. However, with dilution air fv reduces sharply where the dilution jets meet the burner axis. Downstream of the dilution jets fv reduces gradually and the PSDs remain unchanged until the exhaust. At the exhaust, the flame with no air dilution shows significantly more particles with an fv one to two orders of magnitude greater compared to the Cases with dilution. This dataset provides insights into soot spatial and particle size distributions within turbulent flames of relevance to gas turbine combustion with differing dilution parameters and the effect dilution has on the particle size. Additionally, this work measures fv using both ex situ and in situ techniques, and highlights the difficulties associated with comparing results across the two. The results are useful for validating advanced models for turbulent combustion.
Swirl-stabilized, turbulent, non-premixed ethylene-air flames at atmospheric pressure with downstream radially-injected dilution air were investigated from the perspective of soot emissions. The velocity and location of the dilution air jets were systematically varied while the global equivalence ratio was kept constant at 0.3. The employed laser diagnostics included 5 kHz planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH, 10 Hz PAH-PLIF, and 10 Hz laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging of soot particles. OH-PLIF images showed that the reaction zone widens with dilution, and that regions with high OH-LIF signal shift from the shear layer to the axis of the burner as dilution increases. Dilution is effective at mitigating soot formation within the central recirculation zone (CRZ), as evident by the smaller PAH-containing regions and the much weaker LII signal. Dilution is also effective at halting PAH and soot propagation downstream of the dilution air injection point. The high momentum dilution air circulates upstream to the root of the flame and reduces fuel penetration lengths, induces fast mixing, and increases velocities within the CRZ. Soot intermittency increased with high dilution velocities and dilution jet distances up to two bluff body diameters from the burner inlet, with detection probabilities of < 5% compared to 50% without dilution. These results reveal that soot formation and oxidation within the RQL are dependant on the amount and location of dilution air injected. This data can be used to validate turbulent combustion models for soot.
An ultralow emission
combustor concept based on “flameless
oxidation” is demonstrated in this paper for aviation kerosene.
Measurements of gas emissions, as well as of the size and number of
nanoparticles via scanning mobility particle sizing, are carried out
at the combustor outlet, revealing simultaneously soot-free and single-digit
levels for operation at atmospheric
conditions. Such performance, achieved with direct spray injection
of the fuel without any external preheating or prevaporization, is
attributed to the unique mixing configuration of the combustor. The
combustor consists of azimuthally arranged fuel sprays at the upstream
boundary and reverse-flow air jets injected from downstream. This
creates locally sequential combustion, good mixing with hot products,
and a strong whirling motion that increases residence time and homogenizes
the mixture. Under ideal conditions, a clean, bright-blue kerosene
flame is observed, free of soot luminescence. Although soot is intermittently
formed during operation around optimal conditions, high-speed imaging
of the soot luminescence shows that particles are subjected to long
residence times at O2-rich conditions and high temperatures,
which likely promotes their oxidation. As a result, only nanoparticles
in the 2–10 nm range are measured at the outlet under all tested
conditions. The NO
emissions and completeness
of the combustion are strongly affected by the splitting of the air
flow. Numerical simulations confirm the trend observed in the experiment
and provide more insight into the mixing and air dilution.
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