The pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells is thought to be maintained by a few key transcription factors, including Oct3/4 and Sox2. The function of Oct3/4 in ES cells has been extensively characterized, but that of Sox2 has yet to be determined. Sox2 can act synergistically with Oct3/4 in vitro to activate Oct-Sox enhancers, which regulate the expression of pluripotent stem cell-specific genes, including Nanog, Oct3/4 and Sox2 itself. These findings suggest that Sox2 is required by ES cells for its Oct-Sox enhancer activity. Using inducible Sox2-null mouse ES cells, we show that Sox2 is dispensable for the activation of these Oct-Sox enhancers. In contrast, we demonstrate that Sox2 is necessary for regulating multiple transcription factors that affect Oct3/4 expression and that the forced expression of Oct3/4 rescues the pluripotency of Sox2-null ES cells. These results indicate that the essential function of Sox2 is to stabilize ES cells in a pluripotent state by maintaining the requisite level of Oct3/4 expression.
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich peptide that exhibits platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like biological and immunological activities. CTGF is a member of a family of peptides that include serum-induced immediate early gene products, a v-src-induced peptide, and a putative avian transforming gene, nov. In the present study, we demonstrate that human foreskin fibroblasts produce high levels of CTGF mRNA and protein after activation with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) but not other growth factors including PDGF, epidermal growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Because of the high level selective induction of CTGF by TGF-beta, it appears that CTGF is a major autocrine growth factor produced by TGF-beta-treated human skin fibroblasts. Cycloheximide did not block the large TGF-beta stimulation of CTGF gene expression, indicating that it is directly regulated by TGF-beta. Similar regulatory mechanisms appear to function in vivo during wound repair where there is a coordinate expression of TGF-beta 1 before CTGF in regenerating tissue, suggesting a cascade process for control of tissue regeneration and repair.
␣ (IL-1R␣), IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte chemotactic protein 1, nerve growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor in a volume higher than both BMMSCs and NHDFs. Thus, our findings suggest that ATMSCs may account for their broad therapeutic efficacy in animal models of liver diseases and in the clinical settings for liver disease treatment. STEM CELLS 2008;26: 2705-2712 Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
B cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of lupus. To examine the influence of B cells on disease pathogenesis in a murine lupus model, New Zealand Black and New Zealand White F1 hybrid (NZB/W) mice were generated that were deficient for CD19 (CD19−/− NZB/W mice), a B cell-specific cell surface molecule that is essential for optimal B cell signal transduction. The emergence of anti-nuclear antibodies was significantly delayed in CD19−/− NZB/W mice in comparison with wild type NZB/W mice. However, the pathologic manifestations of nephritis appeared significantly earlier and survival was significantly reduced in CD19−/− NZB/W mice in comparison with wild type mice. These results demonstrate both disease promoting and protective roles for B cells in lupus pathogenesis. Recent studies have identified a potent regulatory B cell subset (B10 cells) within the rare CD1dhiCD5+ B cell subset of the spleen that regulates acute inflammation and autoimmunity through the production of IL-10. In wild type NZB/W mice, the CD1dhiCD5+B220+ B cell subset that includes B10 cells was increased by 2.5-fold during the disease course, while CD19−/− NZB/W mice lacked this CD1dhiCD5+ regulatory B cell subset. However, the transfer of splenic CD1dhiCD5+ B cells from wild type NZB/W mice into CD19−/− NZB/W recipients significantly prolonged their survival. Furthermore, regulatory T cells were significantly decreased in CD19−/− NZB/W mice, but the transfer of wild type CD1dhiCD5+ B cells induced Treg cell expansion in CD19−/− NZB/W mice. These results demonstrate an important protective role for regulatory B10 cells in this systemic autoimmune disease.
Our data highlight the properties of ASC as having a special affinity for hepatocyte differentiation in vitro and liver regeneration in vivo. Thus, ASC may be a superior choice for the establishment of a therapy for injured liver.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a metabolic liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis to the disease state of inflammation and fibrosis. Previous studies suggest that apoptosis and necroptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH, based on several murine models. However, the mechanisms underlying the transition of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis remain unclear, because it is difficult to identify when and where such cell deaths begin to occur in the pathophysiological process of NASH. In the present study, our aim is to investigate which type of cell death plays a role as the trigger for initiating inflammation in fatty liver. By establishing a simple method of discriminating between apoptosis and necrosis in the liver, we found that necrosis occurred prior to apoptosis at the onset of steatohepatitis in the choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet model. To further investigate what type of necrosis is involved in the initial necrotic cell death, we examined the effect of necroptosis and ferroptosis inhibition by administering inhibitors to wild-type mice in the CDE diet model. In addition, necroptosis was evaluated using mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) knockout mice, which is lacking in a terminal executor of necroptosis. Consequently, necroptosis inhibition failed to block the onset of necrotic cell death, while ferroptosis inhibition protected hepatocytes from necrotic death almost completely, and suppressed the subsequent infiltration of immune cells and inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, the amount of oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine, which is involved in ferroptosis pathway, was increased in the liver sample of the CDE diet-fed mice. These findings suggest that hepatic ferroptosis plays an important role as the trigger for initiating inflammation in steatohepatitis and may be a therapeutic target for preventing the onset of steatohepatitis.
We have succeeded in culturing dermal papilla (DP) cells long term and developed new techniques that enhance their hair follicle-inducing efficiency in a patch assay. The outgrowing DP cells from mouse vibrissae were markedly stimulated by 10% fetal bovine serum-Dulbecco's modified essential medium that included fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Moreover, the potency of proliferation was maintained during serial cultivations (more than 30 passages). We combined these established DP cells with epidermal cells and implanted them subcutaneously into athymic mice to examine their hair follicle-inducing ability. New hair follicles were induced by dissociated DP cells at earlier passages (under passage 4), but the cells from later passages could not induce follicles. We next aggregated the DP cells to form spheres and then injected them with epidermal cells. Unlike the dissociated DP cells, the spheres made from the later passaged cells (more than 10 passages) did induce new hair follicles. We examined several genes specific for DP of anagen follicles and confirmed that their expression level was elevated in the spheres compared with their expression level in adherent DP cells. These results suggest that FGF-2 is essential for dermal papilla cell culture and that sphere formation partially models the intact DP, resulting in hair follicle induction, even by later passaged cells.
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