Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, Zhejiang has become the province with the largest number of cases. The aim of this article is to present Zhejiang province's experience of establishing an accurate and smart control mechanism for epidemic prevention and control and resumption of work and production using a 'five-colour epidemic chart'. The number of confirmed cases, proportion of local cases, and occurrence of clustered outbreaks were used as evaluation indicators to calculate the county-level epidemic risk and were assigned different weight coefficients; the absence of cases for 3 and 7 consecutive days was used as the adjustment index. When the first chart was published on February 9, there were 1 very-high-risk, 12 high-risk, and 12 low-risk counties. Under the five-colour chart, Zhejiang began to adopt precise measures to prevent and control the epidemic and resume work and production. By February 24, the low-risk counties had expanded to 82, with no high-risk and very-high-risk counties. The epidemic situation in Zhejiang province has been effectively controlled. The experience of epidemic prevention and control in Zhejiang is worthy to be emulated and learned by other countries and regions
The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic. This unprecedented situation has garnered worldwide attention. An effective strategy for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic is to develop highly accurate methods for the rapid identification and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Many companies and institutes are therefore striving to develop effective methods for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA), antibodies, antigens, and the virus. In this review, we summarize the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its genome and gene expression characteristics, and the current progression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, antibodies, antigens, and virus detection. Further, we discuss the reasons for the observed false-negative and false-positive RNA and antibody detection results in practical clinical applications. Finally, we provide a review of the biosensors which hold promising potential for point-of-care detection of COVID-19 patients. This review thereby provides general guidelines for both scientists in the biosensing research community and for those in the biosensor industry to develop a highly sensitive and accurate point-of-care COVID-19 detection system, which would be of enormous benefit for controlling the current COVID-19 pandemic.
Significant morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus result largely from a greatly increased incidence of microvascular complications. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) are two of the most common and severe microvascular complications of diabetes. A high concordance exists in the development of PDR and ESRD in diabetic patients, as well as strong familial aggregation of these complications, suggesting a common underlying genetic mechanism. However, the precise gene(s) and genetic variant(s) involved remain largely unknown. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent angiogenic factor observed in the diabetic human and mouse eye. By a combination of case-control association and functional studies, we demonstrate that the T allele of SNP rs1617640 in the promoter of the EPO gene is significantly associated with PDR and ESRD in three European-American cohorts [Utah: P ؍ 1.91 ؋ 10 ؊3 ; Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) Study: P ؍ 2.66 ؋ 10 ؊8 ; and Boston: P ؍ 2.1 ؋ 10 ؊2 ]. The EPO concentration in human vitreous body was 7.5-fold higher in normal subjects with the TT risk genotype than in those with the GG genotype. Computational analysis suggests that the risk allele (T) of rs1617640 creates a matrix match with the EVI1/MEL1 or AP1 binding site, accounting for an observed 25-fold enhancement of luciferase reporter expression as compared with the G allele. These results suggest that rs1617640 in the EPO promoter is significantly associated with PDR and ESRD. This study identifies a disease risk-associated gene and potential pathway mediating severe diabetic microvascular complications. diabetic microvascular complication ͉ end stage renal disease ͉ proliferative diabetic retinopathy ͉ SNP ͉ association
Human action recognition from skeleton data, fuelled by the Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) with its powerful capability of modeling non-Euclidean data, has attracted lots of attention. However, many existing GCNs provide a pre-defined graph structure and share it through the entire network, which can loss implicit joint correlations especially for the higher-level features. Besides, the mainstream spectral GCN is approximated by one-order hop such that higher-order connections are not well involved. All of these require huge efforts to design a better GCN architecture. To address these problems, we turn to Neural Architecture Search (NAS) and propose the first automatically designed GCN for this task. Specifically, we explore the spatial-temporal correlations between nodes and build a search space with multiple dynamic graph modules. Besides, we introduce multiple-hop modules and expect to break the limitation of representational capacity caused by one-order approximation. Moreover, a corresponding sampling- and memory-efficient evolution strategy is proposed to search in this space. The resulted architecture proves the effectiveness of the higher-order approximation and the layer-wise dynamic graph modules. To evaluate the performance of the searched model, we conduct extensive experiments on two very large scale skeleton-based action recognition datasets. The results show that our model gets the state-of-the-art results in term of given metrics.
Familial macular degeneration is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive central vision loss. Here we show that an R373C missense mutation in the prominin 1 gene (PROM1) causes 3 forms of autosomal-dominant macular degeneration. In transgenic mice expressing R373C mutant human PROM1, both mutant and endogenous PROM1 were found throughout the layers of the photoreceptors, rather than at the base of the photoreceptor outer segments, where PROM1 is normally localized. Moreover, the outer segment disk membranes were greatly overgrown and misoriented, indicating defective disk morphogenesis. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that PROM1 interacted with protocadherin 21 (PCDH21), a photoreceptor-specific cadherin, and with actin filaments, both of which play critical roles in disk membrane morphogenesis. Collectively, our results identify what we believe to be a novel complex involved in photoreceptor disk morphogenesis and indicate a possible role for PROM1 and PCDH21 in macular degeneration.
BACKGROUND Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. Advanced AMD is comprised of geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Specific genetic variants that predispose for GA are largely unknown. METHODS We tested (i) for association between the functional toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) variant rs3775291 (L412F) and AMD in European Americans and (ii) the effect of TLR3 L and F variants on the viability of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro and on RPE cell apoptosis in wildtype and Tlr3−/− mice. RESULTS The F variant (or T allele at single nucleotide polymorphism at rs3775291) was associated with protection against GA (P=0.005); this association was replicated in two independent GA case-control series (P=5.43×10−4 and P=0.002, respectively. We observed no association between TLR3 variants and CNV. The rs377291 variant is probably critical to the function of TLR3, because a prototypic TLR3 ligand induced cell death and apoptosis in human RPE cells with the LL genotype to a greater extent than it did RPE cells with the LF genotype. Moreover, the ligand induced more RPE cell death and apoptosis in wild-type than in Tlr3−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS The TLR3 412F variant confers protection against GA, probably by suppressing RPE cell death. Given that double stranded RNA can activate TLR3-mediated apoptosis, our results suggest a possible role for viral dsRNA transcripts in the development of GA and raise awareness of potential toxicity induced by short interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics in the eye.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness, but presents differently in Europeans and Asians. Here, we perform a genome-wide and exome-wide association study on 2,119 patients with exudative AMD and 5,691 controls, with independent replication in 4,226 patients and 10,289 controls, all of East Asian descent, as part of The Genetics of AMD in Asians (GAMA) Consortium. We find a strong association between CETP Asp442Gly (rs2303790), an East Asian-specific mutation, and increased risk of AMD (odds ratio (OR)=1.70, P=5.60 × 10−22). The AMD risk allele (442Gly), known to protect from coronary heart disease, increases HDL cholesterol levels by 0.17 mmol l−1 (P=5.82 × 10−21) in East Asians (n=7,102). We also identify three novel AMD loci: C6orf223 Ala231Ala (OR=0.78, P=6.19 × 10−18), SLC44A4 Asp47Val (OR=1.27, P=1.08 × 10−11) and FGD6 Gln257Arg (OR=0.87, P=2.85 × 10−8). Our findings suggest that some of the genetic loci conferring AMD susceptibility in East Asians are shared with Europeans, yet AMD in East Asians may also have a distinct genetic signature.
PurposeTo determine the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) in a multi-hospital-based DR screening programme among patients with diabetes in China, the Lifeline Express Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program.MethodsPatients with diabetes in eight hospitals across mainland China (both southern and northern) from January 2014 to July 2016 were recruited in this programme. All participants underwent a standardised interview and examinations and received digital fundus photography. DR severity was graded from retinal fundus photographs by retina specialists in the reading centre of Joint Shantou International Eye Center, according to the grading standards of the English National Screening Programme. STDR was defined as the presence of preproliferative DR (R2), proliferative DR (R3) and/or maculopathy (M1).Results16 305 patients with diabetes were screened for DR in total. Fundus photographs were gradable for 15 078 patients (92.5%). The age–gender-standardised prevalence of any DR and STDR was 27.9% (95% CI, 27.2% to 28.6%) and 12.6% (95% CI, 12.1% to 13.1%), respectively. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, younger age (OR, 0.967), longer duration of diabetes (OR, 1.093), higher haemoglobin A1c (OR, 1.115), higher fasting plasma glucose (OR, 1.074), higher systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.014), faster heart rate (OR, 1.010), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR, 1.149), lower triglycerides (OR, 0.975), higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR, 1.012) and elevated serum creatinine level (OR, 1.003) were associated with the presence of DR. Similar risk factors, except for BUN and triglycerides, were found for STDR.ConclusionsThe prevalence of DR and STDR in diabetes was 27.9% and 12.6%, respectively in this multi-hospital-based population across China. Compared with Western population with diabetes, similar risk factors for DR and STDR were found in Chinese patients with diabetes.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.