IntroductionSmoking is the largest cause of preventable death globally. Most smokers smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence. We took advantage of the widespread availability of mobile phones and adolescents’ interest in appearance to develop a free photoaging app which is promoted via a poster campaign in secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate its effectiveness regarding smoking prevalence and students’ attitudes towards smoking.Methods and analysisA randomised controlled trial is conducted with 9851 students of both genders with an average age of 12 years in grades 6 and 7 of 126 secondary schools in Germany. At present, cigarette smoking prevalence in our sample is 4.7%, with 4.6% of the students currently using e-cigarettes (1.6% use both). The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 months postintervention via a questionnaire plus a random cotinine saliva sample at 24 months postintervention. The study groups consist of randomised schools receiving the Smokerface poster campaign and control schools with comparable baseline data (no intervention). The primary end point is the difference of change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 24 months follow-up. Longitudinal changes in smoking-related attitudes, the number of new smokers and quitters and the change in the number of never-smokers will be compared between the two groups as secondary outcomes.Ethics and disseminationEthical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Gießen and the ministries of cultural affairs, both in Germany. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on our websites and throughout the multinational Education Against Tobacco network.Trial registration numberNCT02544360, Pre-results.
a b s t r a c tThe increases in greenhouse gas concentrations caused by anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, transport and burning of forests and other resources, recorded over the past decades, are known to have an impact on the global environment. In particular, this paper reviews the evidence that climate change has an impact on human health as a whole and on the spread of vector-borne diseases in particular. It offers an analysis of previous research on the connections between climate change and health, with a case study from Brazil, and lists some areas which may guide future policy-making.
Objective:Early detection of limited physical activity and nutritional deficiencies in cancer survivors could contribute to early treatment and preservation of quality of life. The aim of this study is to describe the association of physical condition and nutritional status with fatigue and quality of life in oncological out-patients.Methods:Data in this descriptive study was collected on bioelectrical impedance analysis, postural stability (stability index), body mass index, Karnofsky Index, quality of life (Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey) and fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory-20) in a consecutive sample of 203 oncological out-patients. Phase angle was calculated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Values were intercorrelated and compared to appropriate standard values.Results:Phase angle and stability index outcomes were far below the values of a healthy population of similar age (p < 0.001). Quality of life was significantly lower than in the normal population (p < 0.001), and the level of fatigue was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Phase angle correlated with Karnofsky Index (p = 0.002) and Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey Summary physical function (p < 0.001). Furthermore, multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 scales ‘physical fatigue’ and ‘reduced activity’ were significantly associated with phase angle (p = 0.04, p = 0.005). Stability indices correlated with Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey physical function.Conclusion:The physical condition and the nutritional status are key components determining the individual quality of life of oncological out-patients. These variables also showed an association with the manifestation of fatigue. Results highlight the need for interdisciplinary cooperation to detect physical, nutritional and psychological deficiencies in oncological out-patients.
Traditionally, clinical findings of normal pressure hydrocephalus are mainly characterized by the Hakim triad. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of patients suffering from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in a more holistic manner regarding motor skills, cognitive impairment, and quality of life.
In total, 30 individuals diagnosed with iNPH as well as a reference group with another 30 individuals were included. The iNPH patients and the reference group were age, educational, and morbidity matched. A standardized test battery for psychomotor skills, gait, neuropsychological abilities as well as questionnaires for quality of life was applied. The iNPH group was tested prior to surgery, at 6 weeks, and 3 months postoperatively. The reference group was tested once.
Patients showed a significant improved performance in various items of the test battery during the first 3 months postoperatively. This included neuropsychological evaluation, motor skills including gait and upper motor function as well as the quality of life of the patients. Compared to reference individuals, neuropsychological aspects and quality of life of iNPH patients improved in some parts nearly to normal values.
Our findings underline that shunt surgery does not only improve the symptoms in iNPH patients but also ameliorates the quality of life to a great extent close to those of age and comorbidity matched reference individuals. This data enables an optimized counseling of iNPH patients regarding the expectable outcome after shunt surgery especially regarding cognitive performance, motor skills as well as life quality.
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