Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in the treatment of certain non-melanoma skin cancers and is under evaluation in other dermatoses. Its development has been enhanced by a low rate of adverse events and good cosmesis. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is the main agent used, converted within cells into the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX, with surface illumination then triggering the photodynamic reaction. Despite the relative simplicity of the technique, accurate dosimetry in PDT is complicated by multiple variables in drug formulation, delivery and duration of application, in addition to light-specific parameters. Several non-coherent and coherent light sources are effective in PDT. Optimal disease-specific irradiance, wavelength and total dose characteristics have yet to be established, and are compounded by difficulties comparing light sources. The carcinogenic risk of ALA-PDT appears to be low. Current evidence indicates topical PDT to be effective in actinic keratoses on the face and scalp, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). PDT may prove advantageous where size, site or number of lesions limits the efficacy and/or acceptability of conventional therapies. Topical ALA-PDT alone is a relatively poor option for both nodular BCCs and squamous cell carcinomas. Experience of the modality in other skin diseases remains limited; areas where there is potential benefit include viral warts, acne, psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. A recent British Photodermatology Group workshop considered published evidence on topical PDT in order to establish guidelines to promote the efficacy and safety of this increasingly practised treatment modality.
This study confirms that PDT is a useful treatment and that selected superficial BCCs and SKs respond well to PDT. The PDT 1200 light source proved capable of treating multiple lesions amounting to a 'field change' and also lesions up to 10 cm in diameter within an acceptable treatment time. Thus far, PDT has failed to become established as a routine treatment for small premalignant and malignant skin lesions as it has not proved superior to simple cheaper conventional therapies such as cryotherapy, curettage and cautery, topical chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, or surgery. However, PDT has become established as a treatment for selected cases in some centres. This study suggests a role for PDT in the treatment of large premalignancies, superficial BCCs and field change where existing treatments may be problematic.
The aim of this study was to measure the effect of in-patient management on the quality of life of adult dermatology patients, and to identify the diagnostic categories which show the greatest improvement. Over a 6-month period, all 230 patients admitted to the dermatology ward of the University Hospital of Wales were invited to complete a Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire on admission, and again 4 weeks after discharge. Two hundred and seventeen (93%) of these patients entered the study, and 181 (83.4%) returned both questionnaires. The mean DLQI on admission was 13.2 (standard deviation [SD] 7.6; n = 181), and 4 weeks after discharge it was 7.7 (SD 6.8; P < 0.001). Seventy-three per cent of the 181 patients showed improvement, 5.5% remained unchanged, and 21.5% worsened. Patients with psoriasis improved from 13.7 (SD 6.5) to 6.7 (SD 5.6; n = 63; P < 0.001), and those with eczema improved from 16.2 (SD 6.3) to 9.6 (SD 7.6; n = 56; P < 0.001). Patients with pruritus showed little improvement, as did those admitted for liver biopsy. Patients with psoriasis and severe eczema showed, overall, a significant decrease in impairment of life quality following in-patient treatment. Severe eczema has a greater adverse impact on the quality of life than severe psoriasis. The parameters for which most improvement was seen were those which were of most concern to the patients, i.e. their symptoms (score after discharge = 1.2; DS 0.9; P < 0.001) and their embarrassment (0.9; SD 1.0; P < 0.001).
We present 35 DFSP patients, none of whom showed persistent tumour after treatment with 'slow' MMS using paraffin sections. We advocate MMS as the treatment of choice for DFSP, especially for tumours over the head and neck region where tissue conservation is particularly important.
Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum (C. t.) is a ubiquitous bacterium that colonizes human skin. In contrast to other members of the genus Corynebacterium, such as toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae or the opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium jeikeium, several studies suggest that C. t. may play a role in skin health and disease. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood.
To investigate whether C. t. induces inflammatory pathways in primary human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and human cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells (SCCs), cell culture, reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation‐PCR, small interfering RNA knockdown and luciferase reporter expression system were used.
Herein, we demonstrate that C. t. upregulates the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of inflammatory mediators in two human skin cell lines, HEKs and SCCs. We further show activation of the canonical nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) pathway in response to C. t. infection, including phosphorylation of the inhibitor of κB (IκB), the nuclear translocation of NF‐κB subunit (NF‐κB‐P65) and the recruitment of NF‐κB‐P65 and RNA polymerase to the NF‐κB response elements at the promoter region of the inflammatory genes. Lastly, the data confirm that C. t.‐induced tumor necrosis factor mRNA expression in HEKs is toll‐like receptor 2 (TLR2) dependent.
Our results offer a mechanistic model for C. t.‐induced inflammation in human keratinocytes via TLR2 and activation of IκB kinase and downstream signaling through the canonical NF‐κB pathway. Relevance to chronic inflammatory diseases of the skin and cutaneous oncology is discussed.
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