Bacteria are one of the significant causes of infection in the body after scaffold implantation. Effective use of nanotechnology to overcome this problem is an exciting and practical solution. Nanoparticles can cause bacterial degradation by the electrostatic interaction with receptors and cell walls. Simultaneously, the incorporation of antibacterial materials such as zinc and graphene in nanoparticles can further enhance bacterial degradation. In the present study, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite/graphene was synthesized and characterized as a nanocomposite material possessing both antibacterial and bioactive properties for bone tissue engineering. After synthesizing the zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a mechanochemical process, they were composited with reduced graphene oxide. The nanoparticles and nanocomposite samples were extensively investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Their antibacterial behaviors against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. The antibacterial properties of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were found to be improved more than 2.7 and 3.4 times after zinc doping and further compositing with graphene, respectively. In vitro cell assessment was investigated by a cell viability test and alkaline phosphatase activity using mesenchymal stem cells, and the results showed that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the culture medium, in addition to non-toxicity, led to enhanced proliferation of bone marrow stem cells. Furthermore, zinc doping in combination with graphene significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells. The antibacterial activity along with cell biocompatibility/bioactivity of zinc-doped hydroxyapatite/graphene nanocomposite are the highly desirable and suitable biological properties for bone tissue engineering successfully achieved in this work.
Natural hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on NiTi alloy using electrophoretic deposition method to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Coating process was performed at 120 s in various applied voltages of 40, 60, and 80 V. Sintering process was done at 800 8C under inert gas for 2 h. Electrochemical behavior of the coated samples was investigated in simulated body fluid by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization tests. Furthermore, the nickel ions release from NiTi and HA coated-NiTi samples were analyzed by atomic absorption analysis. Ultimately, scanning electron microscopy micrographs and X-ray diffraction patterns were used to evaluate the morphology and phase analysis of HA coatings. The results show that the sample coated at 60 V reveals a uniform, dense coating accompanied with a higher corrosion resistance. Moreover, after 4 weeks, nickel ions release was reduced to 0.205 mg/cm 2 for coated sample at 60 V.
The aim of this investigation was to enhance the biological behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy while preserving its super-elastic behavior in order to facilitate its compatibility for application in human body. The surfaces of NiTi samples were bombarded by three different nitrogen doses. Small-angle X-ray diffraction was employed for evaluating the generated phases on the bombarded surfaces. The electrochemical behaviors of the bare and surface-modified NiTi samples were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) using electrochemical impedance and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni ion release during a 2-month period of service in the SBF environment was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cellular behavior of nitrogen-modified samples was studied using fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on super-elasticity was investigated by tensile test. The results showed the improvement of both corrosion and biological behaviors of the modified NiTi samples. However, no significant change in the super-elasticity was observed. Samples modified at 1.4E18 ion cm(-2) showed the highest corrosion resistance and the lowest Ni ion release.
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