Background: Incidental gallbladder cancer is defined as a cancer discovered by histological examination after cholecystectomy. It is a potentially curable disease. However, some questions related to their management remain controversial and a defined strategy is associated with better prognosis. Aim: To develop the first evidence-based consensus for management of patients with incidental gallbladder cancer in Brazil. Methods: Sixteen questions were selected, and 36 Brazilian and International members were included to the answer them. The statements were based on current evident literature. The final report was sent to the members of the panel for agreement assessment. Results: Intraoperative evaluation of the specimen, use of retrieval bags and routine histopathology is recommended. Complete preoperative evaluation is necessary and the reoperation should be performed once final staging is available. Evaluation of the cystic duct margin and routine 16b1 lymph node biopsy is recommended. Chemotherapy should be considered and chemoradiation therapy if microscopically positive surgical margins. Port site should be resected exceptionally. Staging laparoscopy before reoperation is recommended, but minimally invasive radical approach only in specialized minimally invasive hepatopancreatobiliary centers. The extent of liver resection is acceptable if R0 resection is achieved. Standard lymph node dissection is required for T2 tumors and above, but common bile duct resection is not recommended routinely. Conclusions: It was possible to prepare safe recommendations as guidance for incidental gallbladder carcinoma, addressing the most frequent topics of everyday work of digestive and general surgeons.
-Decompressive craniotomy (DC) is applied to treat post-traumatic intracranial hypertension (ICH).The purpose of this study is to identify prognostic factors and complications of unilateral DC. Eighty-nine patients submited to unilateral DC were retrospectively analyzed over a period of 30 months. Qui square independent test and Fisher test were used to identify prognostic factors. The majority of patients were male (87%). Traffic accidents had occurred in 47% of the cases. 64% of the patients had suffered severe head injury, while pupillary abnormalities were already present in 34%. Brain swelling plus acute subdural hematoma were the most common tomographic findings (64%). Complications occurred in 34.8% of the patients: subdural effusions in 10 (11.2%), hydrocephalus in 7 (7.9%) and infection in 14 (15.7%). The admittance Glasgow coma scale was a statistically significant predictor of outcome ( p=0.0309).KEY WORDS: head injury, intracranial hypertension, decompressive craniotomy. Craniotomia descompressiva: análise de fatores prognósticos e complicações em 89 pacientesResumo -A craniotomia descompressiva (CD) é técnica utilizada para tratamento da hipertensão intracraniana (HIC) pós-traumática. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar fatores prognósticos e complicações nos pacientes submetidos a esta técnica. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo de 89 pacientes submetidos à CD unilateral para tratamento da HIC pós-traumática durante 30 meses. Utilizou-se testes do Qui-quadrado de independência e teste exato de Fisher para análise de fatores independentes de prognóstico. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (87%). A causa mais comum foi o acidente de trânsito (47%). A maioria apresentava traumatismo cranioencefálico grave (64%), 34% já apresentavam anisocoria. O achado tomográfico mais comum foi a associação entre tumefação cerebral e hematoma subdural agudo (64%). Em 34,8% dos pacientes houve complicações inerentes à técnica: coleção subdural (11,2%), hidrocefalia (7,9%) e infecção (15,7%). A escala de coma de Glasgow à admissão correlacionou-se estatisticamente como fator prognóstico (p=0,0309). Decompressive craniotomy (DC) is a surgical method performed to immediately reduce intracranial pressure (ICP). It is usually indicated in cases of brain swelling (BS) and acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), or even for nontraumautic lesions in order to accommodate the swollen brain 1 . It consists of a unilateral craniotomy and dural augmentation. The bone can be temporarily stored in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue or can be disposed in case of a subsequent cranioplasty (with methylmethacrylate or titanium plate, among other materials). PALAVRAS-CHAVERecent studies have been evaluating DC efficacy when performed early in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and with intracranial hypertension (ICH), yielding a superior result as compared to late performance or to specific clinical procedures (barbiturate coma and hypothermia)  . The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic...
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is a life-threatening complication that requires proper management to prevent the onset of negative outcomes. Patients may experience repeated episodes of cholangitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and death. OBJECTIVE: To report a single center experience in iatrogenic secondary liver transplantation after cholecystectomy and review the literature. METHODS: This was a retrospective single center study. Of the 1662 liver transplantation realized, 10 (0.60 %) were secondary to iatrogenic bile ducts injuries due cholecystectomies. Medical records of these patients were reviewed in this study. RESULTS: Nine of 10 patients were women; the median time in waiting list and between cholecystectomy and inclusion in waiting list was of 222 days and of 139.9 months, respectively. Cholecystectomy was performed by open approach in eight (80%) cases and by laparoscopic approach in two (20%) cases. The patients underwent an average of 3.5 surgeries and procedures before liver transplantation. Biliary reconstruction was realized with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in nine (90%) cases. Mean operative time was 447.2 minutes and the median red blood cell transfusion was 3.4 units per patient. Mortality in the first month was of 30%. CONCLUSION: Although the liver transplantation is an extreme treatment for an initially benign disease, it has its well-defined indications in treatment of bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy, either in acute or chronic scenario.
Background Although the anatomy of the breast, and in particular the ligamentous system, has been widely studied for decades, there is still some controversy regarding some specific anatomical structures. The aims of this study were the ligamentous anatomy of the female breast through cadaveric dissection and to establish relationships with anthropometric and physiological data. Methods At the National Institute of Legal Medicine, we developed a protocol of cadaveric dissection in order to study the ligamentous anatomy of the breast. We performed the dissection of seven female cadavers (14 breasts). Results In each analyzed breast, the Cooper ligaments, suspensory ligament of the axilla, horizontal septum, and the inframammary ligament were recognized. We performed a statistical comparison between height and other parameters, including humeral length, distance between the suprasternal notch and the nipple, and suspensory ligament length. Conclusions This study allowed a greater understanding about the precise location of the different mammary ligaments using anatomical landmarks, including bony structures, and it confirmed that the inframammary ligament is present and related to the inframammary fold. This structure has been consistently identified in a constant anatomic position, and it is more frequently found at the level of the fifth rib. Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
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