Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life. Over the past few years, it has become clear that, at the pathophysiological level, cerebral amyloid angiopathy appears to be in part a protein elimination failure angiopathy and that this dysfunction is a feed-forward process, which potentially leads to worsening vascular amyloid-β accumulation, activation of vascular injury pathways and impaired vascular physiology. From a clinical standpoint, cerebral amyloid angiopathy is characterized by individual focal lesions (microbleeds, cortical superficial siderosis, microinfarcts) and large-scale alterations (white matter hyperintensities, structural connectivity, cortical thickness), both cortical and subcortical. This review provides an interdisciplinary critical outlook on various emerging and changing concepts in the field, illustrating mechanisms associated with amyloid cerebrovascular pathology and neurological dysfunction.
IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is an important diagnosis to reach in clinical practice because many patients with the disease respond to immunosuppressive therapy. Reliable noninvasive diagnostic criteria for CAA-ri would allow some patients to avoid the risk of brain biopsy. OBJECTIVE To test the sensitivity and specificity of clinical and neuroimaging-based criteria for CAA-ri. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We modified the previously proposed clinicoradiological criteria and retrospectively analyzed clinical medical records and magnetic resonance imaging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and gradient-echo scans obtained from individuals with CAA-ri and noninflammatory CAA.
ObjectiveTo describe neuroimaging findings and to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations.MethodsIn this retrospective multicenter study (10 Hospitals), we included 64 confirmed COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations who underwent a brain MRI.ResultsThe cohort included 43 men (67%), 21 women (33%), and the median age was 66 years (range: 20-92). 36 (56%) brain MRIs were considered abnormal, possibly related to SARS-CoV-2. Ischemic strokes (27%), leptomeningeal enhancement (17%), and encephalitis (13%) were the most frequent neuroimaging findings. Confusion (53%) was the most common neurological manifestation, following by impaired consciousness (39%), presence of clinical signs of corticospinal tract involvement (31%), agitation (31%), and headache (16%). The profile of patients experiencing ischemic stroke was different from the other patients with abnormal brain imaging since the former had less frequently acute respiratory distress syndrome (p=0·006) and more frequently corticospinal tract signs (p=0·02). Patients with encephalitis were younger (p=0·007), whereas agitation was more frequent for patients with leptomeningeal enhancement (p=0·009).ConclusionsCOVID-19 patients may develop a wide range of neurological symptoms, which can be associated with severe and fatal complications, such as ischemic stroke or encephalitis. Concerning the meningoencephalitis involvement, even if a direct effect of the virus cannot be excluded, the pathophysiology rather seems to involve an immune and/or inflammatory process given the presence of signs of inflammation in both cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging but the lack of virus in cerebrospinal fluid.
Different patterns of subcortical leukoaraiosis visually identified on MRI might provide insights into the dominant underlying microangiopathy type as well as mechanisms of tissue injury in patients with ICH.
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