Background and objective The optimal management of large vestibular schwannomas continues to be debated. We constituted a task force comprising the members of the EANS skull base committee along with international experts to derive recommendations for the management of this problem from a European perspective. Material and methods A systematic review of MEDLINE database, in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines, was performed. A subgroup analysis screening all surgical series published within the last 20 years (January 2000 to March 2020) was performed. Weighted summary rates for tumor resection, oncological control, and facial nerve preservation were determined using meta-analysis models. This data along with contemporary practice patterns were discussed within the task force to generate consensual recommendations regarding preoperative evaluations, optimal surgical strategy, and follow-up management. Results Tumor classification grades should be systematically used in the perioperative management of patients, with large vestibular schwannomas (VS) defined as > 30 mm in the largest extrameatal diameter. Grading scales for pre- and postoperative hearing (AAO-HNS or GR) and facial nerve function (HB) are to be used for reporting functional outcome. There is a lack of consensus to support the superiority of any surgical strategy with respect to extent of resection and use of adjuvant radiosurgery. Intraoperative neuromonitoring needs to be routinely used to preserve neural function. Recommendations for postoperative clinico-radiological evaluations have been elucidated based on the surgical strategy employed. Conclusion The main goal of management of large vestibular schwannomas should focus on maintaining/improving quality of life (QoL), making every attempt at facial/cochlear nerve functional preservation while ensuring optimal oncological control, thereby allowing to meet patient expectations. Despite the fact that this analysis yielded only a few Class B evidences and mostly expert opinions, it will guide practitioners to manage these patients and form the basis for future clinical trials.
Delayed cerebral vasospasm has classically been considered the most important and treatable cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Secondary ischemia (or delayed ischemic neurological deficit, DIND) has been shown to be the leading determinant of poor clinical outcome in patients with aSAH surviving the early phase and cerebral vasospasm has been attributed to being primarily responsible. Recently, various clinical trials aimed at treating vasospasm have produced disappointing results. DIND seems to have a multifactorial etiology and vasospasm may simply represent one contributing factor and not the major determinant. Increasing evidence shows that a series of early secondary cerebral insults may occur following aneurysm rupture (the so-called early brain injury). This further aggravates the initial insult and actually determines the functional outcome. A better understanding of these mechanisms and their prevention in the very early phase is needed to improve the prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on this topic and so to illustrate how the presence of cerebral vasospasm may not necessarily be a prerequisite for DIND development. The various factors determining DIND that worsen functional outcome and prognosis are then discussed.
Primary intracranial lymphomas (Weller et al. in Neuro Oncol 14(12):1481-1484, 2012) are an emerging disease and an isolated localization in the pituitary gland i.e. primary pituitary lymphoma (PPL) represents a rare condition. We present an update of the most recent evidence for PPL through a systematic review of the literature. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed database up to October 2015. The population was defined as immunocompetent patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of PPL. Patients' characteristics, clinical presentation, radiological features, pathology reports, adjuvant treatment and follow-up data were analyzed. We reported one case of PPL and included our data in this analysis. A total of 33 cases of PPL were identified, including ours. A slight not significant female prevalence was evident, with a mean age of 59 years at diagnosis. Visual troubles and headaches were the most common presenting symptoms. About 80 % of patients presented a cranial nerve (CN) deficit. The most frequently involved were the II and III CN. Anterior hypopituitarism was present in 70 % of cases and a diabetes insipidus in 36 % of cases. PPL was rarely limited to the sella and most often extended to the suprasellar and parasellar space. 70 % of cases underwent resection, 21 % a biopsy. A B-cell lymphoma was isolated in 82 % of cases, a T-cell lymphoma in 15 % and a NK/T cell lymphoma in one case. Overall mean survival rate was 14.4 months (95 % confidence interval 9.0-19.8 months) and there was no difference in terms of survival rates when patients were stratified according to the treatment they received. PPL is an emerging clinical entity. Literature data are too scarce to allow the definition of specific protocols of treatment and the management is based on the guidelines present for PCNSL. The role of surgery aiming at a complete resection of PPL should be reevaluated in wider studies including only this category of patients, to establish the real role of each therapeutic strategy.
Background and objective Craniopharyngiomas are locally aggressive neuroepithelial tumors infiltrating nearby critical neurovascular structures. The majority of published surgical series deal with childhood-onset craniopharyngiomas, while the optimal surgical management for adult-onset tumors remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to summarize the main principles defining the surgical strategy for the management of craniopharyngiomas in adult patients through an extensive systematic literature review in order to formulate a series of recommendations. Material and methods The MEDLINE database was systematically reviewed (January 1970-February 2019) to identify pertinent articles dealing with the surgical management of adult-onset craniopharyngiomas. A summary of literature evidence was proposed after discussion within the EANS skull base section. Results The EANS task force formulated 13 recommendations and 4 suggestions. Treatment of these patients should be performed in tertiary referral centers. The endonasal approach is presently recommended for midline craniopharyngiomas because of the improved GTR and superior endocrinological and visual outcomes. The rate of CSF leak has strongly diminished with the use of the multilayer reconstruction technique. Transcranial approaches are recommended for tumors presenting lateral extensions or purely intraventricular. Independent of the technique, a maximal but hypothalamic-sparing resection should be performed to limit the occurrence of postoperative hypothalamic syndromes and metabolic complications. Similar principles should also be applied This article is part of the Topical Collection on Pituitaries
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. Optimizing the recovery from coma is a priority in seeking to improve patients' functional outcomes. Standards of care have not been established: pharmacological interventions, right median nerve and sensory stimulation, dorsal column stimulation (DCS), deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cell transplantation have all been utilized with contrasting results. The aim of this review is to clarify the indications for the various techniques and to guide the clinical practice towards an earlier coma arousal. A systematic bibliographic search was undertaken using the principal search engines (Pubmed, Embase, Ovid and Cochrane databases) to locate the most pertinent studies. Traumatic injury is a highly individualized process, and subsequent impairments are dependent on multiple factors: this heterogeneity influences and determines therapeutic responses to the various interventions.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.