Amazonia harbors the largest and most diverse tropical forest in the world, but knowledge about the species diversity of the region is still far from ideal. Given this low level of faunal and floral knowledge, we present an annotated list of the species of amphibians and reptiles found in Floresta Nacional do Pau-Rosa (FNPR), along the Rio Paraconi, municipality of Maués, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Herpetofauna of the FNPR was sampled with pitfall traps, active search and occasional encounters from February 18 to March 28, 2009. A total of 270 specimens were collected, representing 39 species of amphibians and 24 species of reptiles. At least seven of the species collected at FNPR represented, at the time, unnamed taxa (four of which have now been named). The number of taxa collected and the high number of unnamed taxa highlight the importance of this area in terms of biodiversity and as a priority for conservation. We also discuss about the amphibian diversity in Amazonia.
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