It is unclear how physical activity stimulates new bone synthesis. We explored whether irisin, a newly discovered myokine released upon physical activity, displays anabolic actions on the skeleton. Young male mice were injected with vehicle or recombinant irisin (r-irisin) at a low cumulative weekly dose of 100 µg kg(-1). We observed significant increases in cortical bone mass and strength, notably in cortical tissue mineral density, periosteal circumference, polar moment of inertia, and bending strength. This anabolic action was mediated primarily through the stimulation of bone formation, but with parallel notable reductions in osteoclast numbers. The trabecular compartment of the same bones was spared, as were vertebrae from the same mice. Higher irisin doses (3,500 µg kg(-1) per week) cause browning of adipose tissue; this was not seen with low-dose r-irisin. Expectedly, low-dose r-irisin modulated the skeletal genes, Opn and Sost, but not Ucp1 or Pparγ expression in white adipose tissue. In bone marrow stromal cell cultures, r-irisin rapidly phosphorylated Erk, and up-regulated Atf4, Runx2, Osx, Lrp5, β-catenin, Alp, and Col1a1; this is consistent with a direct receptor-mediated action to stimulate osteogenesis. We also noted that, although the irisin precursor Fndc5 was expressed abundantly in skeletal muscle, other sites, such as bone and brain, also expressed Fndc5, albeit at low levels. Furthermore, muscle fibers from r-irisin-injected mice displayed enhanced Fndc5 positivity, and irisin induced Fdnc5 mRNA expression in cultured myoblasts. Our data therefore highlight a previously unknown action of the myokine irisin, which may be the molecular entity responsible for muscle-bone connectivity
We previously showed that Irisin, a myokine released from skeletal muscle after physical exercise, plays a central role in the control of bone mass. Here we report that treatment with recombinant Irisin prevented bone loss in hind-limb suspended mice when administered during suspension (preventive protocol) and induced recovery of bone mass when mice were injected after bone loss due to a suspension period of 4 weeks (curative protocol). MicroCT analysis of femurs showed that r-Irisin preserved both cortical and trabecular bone mineral density, and prevented a dramatic decrease of the trabecular bone volume fraction. Moreover, r-Irisin protected against muscle mass decline in the hind-limb suspended mice, and maintained the fiber cross-sectional area. Notably, the decrease of myosin type II expression in unloaded mice was completely prevented by r-Irisin administration. Our data reveal for the first time that Irisin retrieves disuse‐induced bone loss and muscle atrophy. These findings may lead to development of an Irisin-based therapy for elderly immobile osteoporotic and physically disable patients, and might represent a countermeasure for astronauts subjected to microgravity-induced bone and muscle losses.
The development of multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease is mediated by increased number and activity of osteoclasts (OCs). Using an in vitro osteoclastogenesis model consisting of unstimulated and unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with MM, we showed that T cells support the formation of OCs with longer survival. Different from T-cell–depleted MM PBMC cultures, exogenous macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were necessary for the formation of OCs; however, they did not exhibit longer survival. We found up-regulated production of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by fresh MM T cells. Despite high OPG levels, the persistence of osteoclastogenesis can be related to the formation of the OPG/TRAIL complex demonstrated by immunoprecipitation experiments and the addition of anti-TRAIL antibody which decreases OC formation. OCs overexpressed TRAIL decoy receptor DcR2 in the presence of MM T cells and death receptor DR4 in T-cell–depleted cultures. In addition, increased Bcl-2/Bax (B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl2-associated protein X) ratio, following Bcl-2 up-regulation, was detected in OCs generated in the presence of T cells. Our results highlight that MM T cells support OC formation and survival, possibly involving OPG/TRAIL interaction and unbalanced OC expression of TRAIL death and decoy receptors.
It has been recently demonstrated that exercise activity increases the expression of the myokine Irisin in skeletal muscle, which is able to drive the transition of white to brown adipocytes, likely following a phenomenon of transdifferentiation. This new evidence supports the idea that muscle can be considered an endocrine organ, given its ability to target adipose tissue by promoting energy expenditure. In accordance with these new findings, we hypothesized that Irisin is directly involved in bone metabolism, demonstrating its ability to increase the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into mature osteoblasts. Firstly, we confirmed that myoblasts from mice subjected to 3 weeks of free wheel running increased Irisin expression compared to nonexercised state. The conditioned media (CM) collected from myoblasts of exercised mice induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro to a greater extent than those of mice housed in resting conditions. Furthermore, the differentiated osteoblasts increased alkaline phosphatase and collagen I expression by an Irisin-dependent mechanism. Our results show, for the first time, that Irisin directly targets osteoblasts, enhancing their differentiation. This finding advances notable perspectives in future studies which could satisfy the ongoing research of exercise-mimetic therapies with anabolic action on the skeleton.
In the last two decades, numerous scientists have highlighted the interactions between bone and immune cells as well as their overlapping regulatory mechanisms. For example, osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, are derived from the same myeloid precursor cells that give rise to macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. On the other hand, osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, regulate hematopoietic stem cell niches from which all blood and immune cells are derived. Furthermore, many of the soluble mediators of immune cells, including cytokines and growth factors, regulate the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This increased recognition of the complex interactions between the immune system and bone led to the development of the interdisciplinary osteoimmunology field. Research in this field has great potential to provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several diseases affecting both the bone and immune systems, thus providing the molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies. In these review, we reported the latest findings about the reciprocal regulation of bone and immune cells.
Bone metastases represents a common cause of morbidity in patients suffering many types of cancer: breast, lung, kidney, prostate, and multiple myeloma. Osteolytic metastases often cause severe pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, and other nerve-compression syndromes. Osteoclasts (OCs), cells deriving from granulocitic-macrophagic lineage, are responsible for osteolysis, which may be reduced by inhibiting both OCs formation and activity. By studying bone osteolytic metastases mechanism in solid tumors, we report here our findings that cancer patients with bone involvement display an increase in osteoclasts precursors, compared with both healthy controls and cancer patients without bone metastases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with osteolytic lesions show osteoclastogenesis without adding M-CSF, RANKL, or TNF-alpha. However, these factors are necessary to generate OCs from healthy donors, non-osteolytic patient PBMCs and T-cell depleted PBMCs. OCs derived from cancer patients show more resorption pits than OCs from healthy donors and express genes involved in osteoclastogenesis. Our data show that a spontaneous osteoclastogenesis occurs in patients affected by osteolytic lesions and may be supported by factors released by T lymphocytes. These factors could give a priming to osteoclast precursors and promote osteoclastogenesis. In fact, T-cell depleted PBMCs do not differentiate into OCs without adding M-CSF and RANKL. Moreover, we do not obtain a higher number of OCs by increasing RANKL doses in cultures, and OCs and T lymphocytes mRNA level are detected for TNF-alpha but not for RANKL. The addition of OPG to PBMCs cultures do not modify spontaneous osteoclastogenesis. A neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibody in unstimulated PBMC cultures of osteolytic cancer patients induces an inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. These data suggest that TNF-alpha may be responsible for osteoclastogenesis in these tumors.
Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) of prematurity is a multifactorial disorder commonly observed in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) newborns, with a greater incidence in those extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1,000 g). MBD is characterized by biochemical and radiological findings related to bone demineralization. Several antenatal and postnatal risk factors have been associated to MBD of prematurity, although the main pathogenetic mechanism is represented by the reduced placental transfer of calcium and phosphate related to preterm birth. The diagnosis of MBD of prematurity requires the assessment of several biochemical markers, radiological, and ultrasonographic findings. However, the best approach is the prevention of the symptomatic disease, based on the screening of subjects exposed to the risks of developing MBD. Regarding the subjects who need to be screened, there is a substantial agreement on the potential risk factors for MBD. On the contrary, different recommendations exist on the diagnosis, management and treatment of this disorder of bone metabolism. This review was aimed at: (1) identifying the subjects at risk for MBD of prematurity; (2) indicating the biochemical findings to take in consideration for the prevention of MBD of prematurity; (3) suggesting practical recommendations on nutritional intake and supplementation in these subjects. We searched for papers which report the current recommendations for biochemical assessment of MBD of prematurity and for its prevention and treatment. The majority of the authors suggest that MBD of prematurity is a disease which tends to normalize overtime, thus it is not mandatory to mimic the rate of mineral fetal accretion through parenteral or enteral supplementation. The optimization of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and the early achievement of a full enteral feeding are important goals for the prevention and management of MBD of prematurity.
Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling through the secretion of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf1, soluble frizzled-related protein-2 and -3 has a key role in the decreased osteoblast (OB) activity associated with multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease. We provide evidence that another Wnt antagonist, sclerostin, an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, is expressed by myeloma cells, that is, human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and plasma cells (CD138+ cells) obtained from the bone marrow (BM) of a large number of MM patients with bone disease. We demonstrated that BM stromal cells (BMSCs), differentiated into OBs and co-cultured with HMCLs showed, compared with BMSCs alone, reduced expression of major osteoblastic-specific proteins, decreased mineralized nodule formation and attenuated the expression of members of the activator protein 1 transcription factor family (Fra-1, Fra-2 and Jun-D). Moreover, in the same co-culture system, the addition of neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies restored OB functions by inducing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand and the downregulation of osteoprotegerin in OBs were also sclerostin mediated. Our data indicated that sclerostin secretion by myeloma cells contribute to the suppression of bone formation in the osteolytic bone disease associated to MM.
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