Patients with SOX2 mutations often manifest the unusual phenotype of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, with sparing of other pituitary hormones despite anterior pituitary hypoplasia. SOX2 expression patterns in human embryonic development support a direct involvement of the protein during development of tissues affected in these individuals. Given the critical role of Wnt-signaling in the development of most of these tissues, our data suggest that a failure to repress the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway could be one of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms associated with loss-of-function mutations in SOX2.
Noonan syndrome (NS) is among the most common nonchromosomal disorders affecting development and growth. NS is caused by aberrant RAS-MAPK signaling and is genetically heterogeneous, which explains, in part, the marked clinical variability documented for this Mendelian trait. Recently, we and others identified SOS1 as a major gene underlying NS. Here, we explored further the spectrum of SOS1 mutations and their associated phenotypic features. Mutation scanning of the entire SOS1 coding sequence allowed the identification of 33 different variants deemed to be of pathological significance, including 16 novel missense changes and in-frame indels. Various mutation clusters destabilizing or altering orientation of regions of the protein predicted to contribute structurally to the maintenance of autoinhibition were identified. Two previously unappreciated clusters predicted to enhance SOS1's recruitment to the plasma membrane, thus promoting a spatial reorientation of domains contributing to inhibition, were also recognized. Genotype–phenotype analysis confirmed our previous observations, establishing a high frequency of ectodermal anomalies and a low prevalence of cognitive impairment and reduced growth. Finally, mutation analysis performed on cohorts of individuals with nonsyndromic pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects, and ventricular septal defects excluded a major contribution of germline SOS1 lesions to the isolated occurrence of these cardiac anomalies. Hum Mutat 32:760–772, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) of prematurity is a multifactorial disorder commonly observed in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) newborns, with a greater incidence in those extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1,000 g). MBD is characterized by biochemical and radiological findings related to bone demineralization. Several antenatal and postnatal risk factors have been associated to MBD of prematurity, although the main pathogenetic mechanism is represented by the reduced placental transfer of calcium and phosphate related to preterm birth. The diagnosis of MBD of prematurity requires the assessment of several biochemical markers, radiological, and ultrasonographic findings. However, the best approach is the prevention of the symptomatic disease, based on the screening of subjects exposed to the risks of developing MBD. Regarding the subjects who need to be screened, there is a substantial agreement on the potential risk factors for MBD. On the contrary, different recommendations exist on the diagnosis, management and treatment of this disorder of bone metabolism. This review was aimed at: (1) identifying the subjects at risk for MBD of prematurity; (2) indicating the biochemical findings to take in consideration for the prevention of MBD of prematurity; (3) suggesting practical recommendations on nutritional intake and supplementation in these subjects. We searched for papers which report the current recommendations for biochemical assessment of MBD of prematurity and for its prevention and treatment. The majority of the authors suggest that MBD of prematurity is a disease which tends to normalize overtime, thus it is not mandatory to mimic the rate of mineral fetal accretion through parenteral or enteral supplementation. The optimization of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and the early achievement of a full enteral feeding are important goals for the prevention and management of MBD of prematurity.
In the last years, new evidences of the relationship between immune system and bone have been accumulated both in animal models and in humans affected by bone disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a subsequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The combined effects of estrogen deprivation and raising of FSH production occurring in menopause cause a marked stimulation of bone resorption and a rapid bone loss which is central for the onset of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This review focuses on the role of immune system in postmenopausal osteoporosis and on therapeutic strategies targeting osteoimmunology pathways.
The purpose of this review is to evaluate whether some risk factors in childhood work as significant predictors of the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. These factors include exposures to risk factors in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables. We searched articles of interest in PubMed using the following terms: 'predictors AND obesity OR Metabolic syndrome AND (children OR adolescents) AND (dyslipidemia OR type 2 diabetes OR atherosclerosis OR hypertension OR hypercholesterolemia OR cardiovascular disease)' AND genetic OR epigenetic. Maternal age, smoking and weight gain during pregnancy, parental body mass index, birth weight, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and the parents' employment have a role in early life. Furthermore, urbanization, unhealthy diets, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and genetic/epigenetic variants play a role in the persistence of obesity in adulthood. Health promotion programs/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. Moreover, it should be a clinical priority to correctly identify obese children who are already affected by metabolic comorbidities.
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations in the oxidant/antioxidant status in obese children with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: We recruited 25 Caucasian obese children with MetS, 30 Caucasian children with simple obesity and a control group of 30 Caucasian children. We performed diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test in order to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant status in recruited patients. Results: d-ROM level was significantly higher in obese children with and without MetS (p = 0.005). The total antioxidant capacity (BAP level) was reduced in MetS and noMetS children compared to controls (p = 0.009). The subjects without MetS had higher d-ROMs test and lower BAP/d-ROMs ratio than subjects with MetS (although not significant). The ratio BAP/d-ROMs was higher in controls than noMetS and MetS children (p < 0.0001). d-ROM level was higher in prepubertal subjects with MetS than pubertal ones (p = 0.03). A direct correlation was found between d-ROM levels and BMI SDS (p = 0.0005), while an inverse correlation was found between BAP and BMI SDS (p = 0.004) and BAP/d-ROMs and BMI SDS (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: This result confirms that fat accumulation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of systemic oxidative stress already during pediatric age.
Childhood obesity and its related comorbidities are increasingly recognised in children, predisposing them to early cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The objective of the study was to investigate markers of metabolism, inflammation and haemostasis in a group of Italian obese children and adolescents. Fifty-nine obese and 40 non-obese subjects were recruited. Fasting glucose and insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and adiponectin were measured. Hypercoagulability was assessed by measuring the circulating levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D: -dimer, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF). A significant degree of insulin resistance was present in obese subjects compared with controls (p < 0.0001). The obese showed higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol than controls (p < 0.0001). Circulating levels of hsCRP and TNF-α were significantly higher in obese than in controls while serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in obese than non-obese subjects (p < 0.001; p = 0.031; p < 0.0001, respectively). vWF, TAT, D-dimer, fibrinogen and PAI-1 levels were significant higher in obese subjects compared with control group (p = 0.02; p < 0.0001; p = 0.0037; p < 0.0001; p = 0.017, respectively). In conclusion, our results suggest that childhood obesity per se is associated with a proinflammatory and prothrombotic state.
LIGHT, a TNF superfamily member, is involved in T-cell homeostasis and erosive bone disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Herein, we investigated whether LIGHT has a role in Multiple Myeloma (MM)-bone disease. We found that LIGHT was overproduced by CD14+ monocytes, CD8+ T-cells and neutrophils of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) from MM-bone disease patients. We also found that LIGHT induced osteoclastogenesis and inhibited osteoblastogenesis. In cultures from healthy-donors, LIGHT induced osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-dependent and -independent manners. In the presence of a sub-optimal RANKL concentration, LIGHT and RANKL synergically stimulated osteoclast formation, through the phosphorylation of Akt, NFκB and JNK pathways. In cultures of BM samples from patients with bone disease, LIGHT inhibited the formation of CFU-F and CFU-OB as well as the expression of osteoblastic markers including collagen-I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein-II. LIGHT indirectly inhibited osteoblastogenesis in part through sclerostin expressed by monocytes. In conclusion, our findings for the first time provide evidence for a role of LIGHT in MM-bone disease development.
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