Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.
BackgroundEfficiency of feed utilization is important for animal production because it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve industry profitability. However, the genetic basis of feed utilization in livestock remains poorly understood. Recent developments in molecular genetics, such as platforms for genome-wide genotyping and sequencing, provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways that influence production traits. It is known that transcriptional networks influence feed efficiency-related traits such as growth and energy balance. This study sought to identify differentially expressed genes in animals genetically divergent for Residual Feed Intake (RFI), using RNA sequencing methodology (RNA-seq) to obtain information from genome-wide expression profiles in the liver tissues of Nelore cattle.ResultsDifferential gene expression analysis between high Residual Feed Intake (HRFI, inefficient) and low Residual Feed Intake (LRFI, efficient) groups was performed to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie feed efficiency-related traits in beef cattle. A total of 112 annotated genes were identified as being differentially expressed between animals with divergent RFI phenotypes. These genes are involved in ion transport and metal ion binding; act as membrane or transmembrane proteins; and belong to gene clusters that are likely related to the transport and catalysis of molecules through the cell membrane and essential mechanisms of nutrient absorption. Genes with functions in cellular signaling, growth and proliferation, cell death and survival were also differentially expressed. Among the over-represented pathways were drug or xenobiotic metabolism, complement and coagulation cascades, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress, melatonin degradation and glutathione metabolism.ConclusionsOur data provide new insights and perspectives on the genetic basis of feed efficiency in cattle. Some previously identified mechanisms were supported and new pathways controlling feed efficiency in Nelore cattle were discovered. We potentially identified genes and pathways that play key roles in hepatic metabolic adaptations to oxidative stress such as those involved in antioxidant mechanisms. These results improve our understanding of the metabolic mechanisms underlying feed efficiency in beef cattle and will help develop strategies for selection towards the desired phenotype.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1464-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The objective was to evaluate the structural and functional quality of bull sperm after sexing by flow cytometry. Frozen non-sexed (NS), sexed for X (SX) and sexed for Y (SY) sperm from four bulls was used. Frozen-thawed sperm was analyzed for motility, sperm head agglutination, morphology, capacitation, and integrity of the plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin. After Percoll centrifugation (45:60% gradients), the pellet was used for sperm analysis or IVF. Data were analyzed using generalized linear models (P < 0.05) and were reported as least squares means ± standard error (SEM). Based on sperm evaluations, NS sperm had better (P < 0.05) quality than sexed sperm, including higher motility and greater percentages of cells with an intact membrane and acrosome (58.0 ± 3.0, 58.2 ± 3.0, and 60.9 ± 3.3) than SX (29.6 ± 1.3, 36.0 ± 2.9, and 37.1 ± 3.3), and SY (26.2 ± 2.1, 36.4 ± 2.9, and 37.5 ± 3.3). There were no differences (P > 0.05) among groups for fertilization and cleavage rates. Similarly, blastocyst rate on Day 8 (Day 0 = day of insemination) did not differ among groups (22.2 ± 3.2, 18.1 ± 3.3, and 14.8 ± 2.9 for NS, SX, and SY, respectively). Regarding embryo development kinetics, all groups had similar developmental stages from Days 6 to 9. Although the sex-sorting procedure affected sperm characteristics, it did not significantly affect fertilization or embryo development.
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies) were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG), biological pathways and putative regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT), regulatory impact factor (RIF) and phenotypic impact factor (PIF) were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both groups (high (H) and low (L) GEBV) and 77 DEG (FDR 10%) were identified between the two groups. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L group and detected putative regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1), MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2) and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption.
Recebido em 6/9/07; aceito em 24/4/08; publicado na web em 19/9/08 SCREENING OF THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF BEE POLLEN PRODUCED IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF BRAZIL. The contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of bee pollen ethanolic extract were determined and compared to those of commercial antioxidants. Bee pollen extract from the state of Rio Grande do Sul presented antioxidant activity statistically equal to that of α-tocopherol and higher than those of BHT and BHA. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics and total flavonoids contents of bee pollen extracts. HPLC technique made the identification of high contents of rutin and myricetin possible, which may partially explain the high antioxidant activity of Brazilian bee pollen.Keywords: antioxidant activity; bee pollen; HPLC. introduçãoO pólen apícola é um aglomerado de pólen de flores de várias fontes vegetais, os quais são coletados pelas abelhas e misturados com néctar e secreções das glândulas hipofaringeanas, como as enzimas α e ß-glicosidase.1 O pólen contém nutrientes como carboidratos, proteínas, aminoácidos, lipídeos, vitaminas e minerais, além de carotenóides, flavonóides e fitosteróis 1,2 sendo o motivo da sua utilização como alimento alternativo e/ou suplemento alimentar. 3,4 O pólen, a própolis e o mel têm recentemente recebido atenção especial entre os pesquisadores de todo o mundo, devido principalmente as suas propriedades biológicas, como atividade antibacteriana, 5,6 antifúngica, 7 antiinflamatória, 8-10 anticariogênica, 11,12 e imunomodulatória.13 O extrato de pólen (Cernilton ® ) tem sido utilizado no tratamento de alguns casos de prostatite benigna 14,15 e redução da sensibilidade oral em crianças que têm alergia a pólen. 16 Estudos têm demonstrado que a ação biológica do pólen é devida à presença de compostos fenólicos, tais como flavonóides, ácidos fenólicos e diterpenos fenólicos, que dentre outras propriedades biológicas possuem ação antioxidante. 9, Os compostos sintéticos BHT (butil hidroxitolueno) e BHA (butil hidroxianisol) são antioxidantes efetivos e muito utilizados na indústria de alimentos, porém podem apresentar atividades mutagê-nicas.20 Neste sentido, a procura de agentes antioxidantes naturais tem recebido atenção especial por parte dos pesquisadores de todo mundo e da indústria alimentícia.A eficiência dos compostos polifenólicos como antioxidantes depende, em grande parte, de sua estrutura química, orientação relativa e do número de grupos hidroxila ligados ao anel aromático. 21,22 Entre os métodos que empregam radicais orgânicos na avaliação de seqüestradores de radicais livres, o método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1-picril-hidrazil) tem sido extensivamente utilizado por vários autores, devido principalmente a sua simplicidade e rapidez. 23 Outro método bastante usado é o do clareamento do β-caroteno, que usa um modelo de substrato lipídico (ácido linoléico) em emulsão. 24,25 Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo deter...
Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions.
RESUMO -Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de massa seca das folhas, a relação folha/colmo e alguns índices de crescimento do capim-xaraés submetido a doses de nitrogênio (N) e potássio (K). O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no período de novembro/2004 a fevereiro/2005. Adotou-se esquema fatorial 4 × 3, perfazendo 12 combinações, as quais foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, perfazendo um total 48 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas quatro doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 225 mg dm -3 ) e três doses de K (0, 50 e 100 mg dm -3 ). Verificou-se efeito das doses de N na produção de massa seca das folhas e na produção de massa seca total, em todos os cortes, com maior produção nas doses mais elevadas de N, ao passo que o K influenciou essas variáveis apenas no segundo corte. A relação folha/ colmo, a RAF, a AFE e a RPF somente foram significativas no terceiro corte da planta. Os efeitos das doses de foram decrescentes sobre essas variáveis, enquanto as doses de K agiram de modo antagônico às doses de N sobre a RAF e AFE.Palavras-chave: área foliar específica, nutrição mineral, razão de área foliar, razão de peso foliar Dry matter production, leaf/stem ratio and growth indexes of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés), cultivated with different rate combinations of nitrogen and potassiumABSTRACT -This work aimed to evaluate dry matter production, leaf/stem ratio and growth indexes of palisade grass cv. Xaraés grown under increasing nitrogen and potassium rates. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from November, 2004 until February, 2005. The experimental treatments consisted of a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement between nitrogen and potassium rates respectively. Nitrogen rates were 0, 75, 150, and 225 mg dm -3 , whereas potassium rates were 0; 50 and 100 mg dm -3 . The experiment design was completely randomized with four replications. It was verified a positive N fertilization effect both on leaf dry matter yield and total dry matter yield. Potassium influenced these same response variables only at the second harvest. The leaf/stem ratio, leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and, leaf weight ratio (LWR) were affected by treatments only at the third harvest. Increasing N rates reduced these response variables (L/S, LAR, SLA, LWR) while potassium rates behaved in an antagonistic way on LAR and SLA.Key Words: leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio, mineral nutrition, specific leaf area IntroduçãoAs folhas constituem-se em órgãos das plantas responsáveis pela fotossíntese, além de serem a principal fonte de nutrientes para os ruminantes em sistemas de pastejo. Evidencia-se, dessa maneira, a necessidade de se investigarem os modelos morfofisiológicos que se tornam indispensáveis para a definição de estratégias de manejo de pastos.As porções verde da planta são as mais nutritivas da dieta e consumidas preferencialmente pelos animais (Wilson & t'Mannetje, 1978). Segundo esses autores, alta relação folha/colmo representa forragem com ...
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.