Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) for subsequent efficient reduction in selective catalytic reduction or lean NO(x) trap devices continues to be a challenge in diesel engines because of the low efficiency and high cost of the currently used platinum (Pt)-based catalysts. We show that mixed-phase oxide materials based on Mn-mullite (Sm, Gd)Mn(2)O(5) are an efficient substitute for the current commercial Pt-based catalysts. Under laboratory-simulated diesel exhaust conditions, this mixed-phase oxide material was superior to Pt in terms of cost, thermal durability, and catalytic activity for NO oxidation. This oxide material is active at temperatures as low as 120°C with conversion maxima of ~45% higher than that achieved with Pt. Density functional theory and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy provide insights into the NO-to-NO(2) reaction mechanism on catalytically active Mn-Mn sites via the intermediate nitrate species.
Steady-state IR measurements for adsorption of only CO and under WGS reaction indicate that formates are present on the surface of partially reduced ceria, in contrast to a recent study, and that they are strongly limited at high CO conversions. At low temperatures and conversions, the formates are close to the equilibrium adsorption/desorption coverages obtained from CO adsorption alone. The formates are close to saturation at low temperatures. These IR results favor the bidentate formate mechanism in explaining WGS. However, more kinetic studies are required and over a wider range of temperatures. While low-temperature kinetic studies have found a zero-order dependency for CO and related this to saturation of a noble metal surface, this study indicates that one cannot rule out the possibility of the formate mechanism on this basis, as CO is also close to saturation as an adsorbed formate at the low temperatures used in previous studies.
The performance of Pd catalysts supported
on SiO2, Al2O3 and ZrO2 for the hydrodeoxygenation
(HDO) of phenol has been compared in the gas phase, at 300 °C
and 1 atm using a fixed bed reactor. While Pd supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 exhibits high selectivity
to cyclohexanone, when supported on an oxophilic support such as ZrO2, it favors the selectivity toward benzene, reducing the formation
of ring-hydrogenated products, cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Diffuse
reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy experiments support
the participation of a keto-tautomer intermediate (2,4-cyclohexadienone)
in the reaction. This intermediate can be hydrogenated in two different
pathways. If the ring is hydrogenated, cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol
are dominant products, as in the case of Pd/SiO2 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts. By contrast, if the carbonyl group
of the keto-intermediate tautomer is hydrogenated, benzene is directly
formed via rapid dehydration of the unstable cyclohexadienol intermediate.
This is observed in the case of Pd/ZrO2 catalyst. These
results demonstrate that the selectivity for HDO of phenol can be
controlled by using supports of varying oxophilicity.
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