Monogeneans are major parasites of fish and cause large economic losses in aquaculture. Treatment for this parasitic infection is done with products that are mostly toxic to fish and the environment. Essential oils (EOs) of Melaleuca alternifolia and Mentha piperita and the oleoresin (OR) of Copaifera duckei were tested for their in vitro anthelmintic activity against the monogenean parasites (Anacanthorus penilabiatus and Mymarothecium viatorum) of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Naturally infected gills were bathed with the herbal solutions (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/L) and monitored every 15 min for 4 h. Because of its greater efficacy in vitro (p b 0.05) compared to the other herbal medicines, C. duckei OR was selected for in vivo testing. The in vivo treatment consisted of 10 and 50 mg/L baths of C. duckei OR for 10 min. Parasitological, hematological, and histological analyses were conducted post-bath and seven days after treatment. Parasite loads decreased by approximately 45% in fish treated with 50 mg/L of C. duckei OR. No hematological changes caused by treatment with C. duckei OR at 10 and 50 mg/L were observed. Histology revealed branchial and hepatic alterations in fish from all groups, whereas spleen and kidney tissues were not affected. Histopathological alterations observed in all fish were due to parasitism or nutritional/farming conditions. Hematological and histological results showed that short baths were safe for fish. Based on the strong anthelmintic activity observed, C. duckei OR offers a promising alternative treatment against monogenean parasites.
The effect of the essential oils (EOs) of peppermint, Mentha piperita L., and tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, on the haematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., was evaluated. Fish (58.09 ± 5.87 g) were fed 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of each EO and sampled on days 7, 14, 30 and 60 after starting supplementation. The haematological and biochemical parameters were not altered by the supplementation of EOs compared to the control (p > .05). With regard to the immunological parameters, the activation of the complement system of fish fed 250 mg/kg peppermint and 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg tea tree EOs were significantly higher compared to the control after 60 days of feeding (p < .05). The complement system plays an essential role in innate immunity and contributes significantly to the acquired immune response; thus, its activation through supplementation with EOs is promising for the formulation of nutritional additives in aquaculture. Regarding intestinal morphology, fish fed 250 mg/kg tea tree EO presented higher villus size compared to all other groups (p < .05), which represents a healthier gut. These fish present a larger intestinal surface, which can result in better absorption and utilization of the nutrients. Based on the responses found in this study, both EOs were considered promising for the formulation of feed additives for Nile tilapia.
Trypanosomes are flagellated parasite protozoans that prey especially on wild fish and have recently been described affecting fish in aquaculture. The present study was carried out during a mortality outbreak of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared in net cages. Samples of 10 fish in the finishing phase showing unspecific signs, such as anorexia, skin darkening and gill paleness, were analyzed using hemogram, parasitology, microbiology, histopathology, electron microscopy and molecular identification. For microbiological analysis, the kidney was collected aseptically and cultured on tryptone soy agar for 48 h at 30°C. For parasitological analysis, skin, gills, intestinal contents and blood scrapings were examined. Photomicrographs of the parasite were measured. For molecular identification, blood samples were processed and sequenced for amplification of the 18S rDNA gene. Gills, liver, spleen, kidney, heart and intestine were sampled for histopathological processing. The microbiological results indicated that the fish were not infected with bacteria. Scrapings of the skin and gills revealed the massive presence of kinetoplastids, which were also observed in greater numbers than erythrocytes in the blood. Intestines were not affected by endoparasites. The morphometric characteristics indicated the presence of the Trypanosoma genus, which was confirmed in the sequenced samples, where 95% and 98% of the identity were Trypanosoma sp. In histopathology, all organs presented different levels of alteration, accompanied by large numbers of the parasite in small and large vessels. The main findings were the description of mast cell infiltrates in the gill and intestine, as well as multifocal aggregates of melanomacrophages in the liver, pancreas, spleen and kidney. Furthermore, the study addresses the newest features of clinical signs of infected fish and possible causes of infestations and compares the diagnosis of this hemoparasite with other hemoflagellates. To our knowledge, this study represents the first outbreak of Trypanosoma in Nile tilapia in South America. The authors warn of possible new cases of trypanosomiasis in aquaculture, recommending possible forms of containment and biosecurity measures.
This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58"S, 49°8′49"W), state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1%) adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) and 2,347 (44.9%) Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae), both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low ( ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e analisar as comunidades e infracomunidades de metazoários parasitos de corvinas capturadas no Reservatório de Promissão, Rio Tietê, município de Borborema (21° 67′S, 49° 14′O), Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinados 50 espécimes, capturados por pescadores profissionais no mês de março de 2015, e os parasitas coletados foram quantificados, preparados e montados para identificação taxonômica e análise das comunidades de parasitos. Os peixes analisados no estudo apresentaram comprimento padrão médio de 25,2 ± 2,2 cm e peso médio de 328,82 ± 89,03 g. Foram coletados 5227 espécimes de parasitas metazoários, sendo 2880 (55,1%) Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) e 2347 (44,9%) metacercárias de Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea, Diplostomidae), ambos com prevalência de 100% e abundância parasitária de 57,6 e 46,9, respectivamente. Foi encontrada baixa diversidade parasitária (riqueza de espécies=2), com índice de Simpson (D) igual a 0,505 e baixos valores dos índices de Shannon (H'=0,688) e de diversidade de Margalef (I=0,177). O índice de dominância de Berger-Parker (d=0,551) indicou uma leve dominância do monogenético D. piscinarius. Houve correlação positiva intermediária, avaliada pelo coeficiente de Pearson, entre a abundância parasitária de D. piscinarius e comprimento padrão (r=0,43) e peso (r=0,51) dos hospedeiros.Palavras-chave: Peixe de água doce, corvina, ecologia parasitária, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Diplectanum piscinarius.
Parasitic diseases have caused significant problems to global aquaculture production. These studies will further our knowledge of this complex problem and help implement adequate prevention measures and control strategies. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of parasites in Megaleporinus obtusidens and to describe the epidemiology and pathology of parasitic infections in these fish. Five moribund fish were sent for parasitological examination. The integument and gills were scrapped off with a glass slide, and samples were examined under a light microscope. Parasitic crustaceans found in these specimens were submitted for scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses. The crustaceans Dolops carvalhoi and Lernaea cyprinacea and the Epistylis spp. were present in all fish examined. Epistylis spp. were also seen on the entire surface of the crustacean integument. Microscopic lesions observed in the parasitized gills included hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the lamellar epithelium, an inflammatory infiltrate, telangiectasia, foci of hemorrhage and necrosis, fusion of the secondary lamellae, and detachment of the lamellar epithelium. Crustacean parasites are important mechanical vectors of Epistylis infection and disseminate the disease in fish farming operations. Epistylis spp. infection affects the health of fish and has significant ecological and economical impact on aquaculture.
Restricted contact between wild amphibians and cultured fish facilitates the transmission of various diseases, including parasitic diseases. The trichodinids are one of the most important ectoparasites in fish farming in continental aquaculture, as they cause significant lesions in the integument and in the gills of the animals, causing mortality outbreaks. Thus the objective of this study is to describe the interaction between trichodinids and wild amphibians found in an earth pond prepared to receive fish from cultivation. Seventy five Rhinella schneideri tadpoles were collected for parasitological assessment. All studied tadpoles were severely parasitized by Trichodina heterodentata, with mean intensity and abundance of 7332 ± 3689.5 and range of intensity of 1394-13,240. Despite the high parasitism, no lesions were observed in the animals, mainly due to the large amount of mucus secreted under its integument, forming a protective layer. Wild amphibians are being found inside fish farming tanks, mainly because of the abundant availability of food, providing a calm and ideal environment for breeding. However, tadpoles are able to maintain high rates of parasitism by trichodinids, aiding in the dissemination of parasites to cultured fish. The present work reports for the first time this interrelationship between different species, sharing the same environment and pathogens, with potential damage to the health of commercial farmed hosts.
RESUMOO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a sazonalidade de Cichlidogyrus spp. parasitando as brânquias de tilápias criadas em tanques-rede e correlacionar os níveis de parasitismo com a temperatura da água. As coletas foram realizadas em duas pisciculturas comerciais, produtoras de tilápia, localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Uma propriedade situada no Rio Tietê (propriedade 1) e outra no Rio Grande (propriedade 2). Foram coletados mensalmente, 30 peixes de cada uma, no período de setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Após a captura, os animais foram medidos, pesados e mortos por meio de secção da medula espinhal, as brânquias removidas e acondicionadas em formol a 5% e os monogenóideos quantificados. A temperatura foi aferida no final de cada coleta utilizando cinco pontos previamente demarcados em cada piscicultura, usando sonda YSI 55. O teste não-paramétrico de Kruskal Wallis e o teste de Dunn foram utilizados e os dados analisados no software GraphPad Prism 6, para determinar possíveis diferenças de parasitismo nas estações do ano e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman r foi usado para associar o nível parasitismo com as temperaturas. Nas pisciculturas 1 e 2, os valores mais elevados de temperatura foram obtidos no Verão (29,0°C e 29,7°C) e Outono (25,9°C e 26,9°C), assim como os níveis de parasitismo, diferindo significativamente da Primavera (25,4°C e 24,2°C) e Inverno (21,1°C e 22,4°C), demonstrando correlação positiva entre o parasitismo e a temperatura da água na propriedade 1 (r=0,26; p<0,001) e propriedade 2 (r=0,25; p<0,001). O estudo da variação parasitária constitui importante ferramenta na avaliação da qualidade do pescado e do meio aquático no qual estão instaladas as pisciculturas, o que permite um planejamento preventivo exato e eficaz do manejo sanitário, evitando gastos desnecessários com o uso inadequado de medicamentos e consequentes surtos de mortalidade causados por infecções bacterianas decorrente da injúria parasitária. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: PREVENÇÃO. SAZONALIDADE. TANQUES-REDE. AGRADECIMENTOS:As Pisciculturas pelo suporte e fornecimento dos peixes e a Trouw Nutrition pelo apoio financeiro ao projeto ÁREA TEMÁTICA: Doenças Parasitárias
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