Resumo A utilização de ingredientes microencapsulados na indústria alimentícia apresenta crescente expansão. A microencapsulação é utilizada para proteger o material ativo de condições adversas e apresenta ainda mais vantagens quando utilizada juntamente com a liberação controlada. O uso da atomização para microencapsulação é uma das técnicas mais utilizadas devido ao seu baixo custo e facilidade de aplicação. Esta revisão descreve a produção de micropartículas contendo ingredientes alimentícios através da secagem por atomização e discute a liberação controlada do material ativo das micropartículas pelo mecanismo de difusão e modelos cinéticos.
Cachaça is produced and marketed throughout Brazil to an extent that it has become a symbol of the country. To ensure the safety to consumers, the quality of the beverage must meet the legal standards set by Brazilian law. Nevertheless, reports of inadequacies are still common, and the complexity of its composition requires more detailed studies. This study sought to evaluate the chemical composition of cachaça produced in the state of Paraiba, determine the conformity with the parameters required by legislation, and identify volatile compounds present in these beverages. The cachaça samples were collected from the local commerce in their original packaging and sent to the Laboratório de Análise de Qualidade de Aguardente of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The parameters analyzed were those established by Brazilian legislation as indicators of quality. Volatile compounds were identified by mass spectrometry coupled to gas chromatography (GC-MS). Among the 20 samples analyzed, 17 were irregular with respect to at least one of the parameters established by the legislation. The complexity of the volatile composition has been proven by the fact that 57 compounds represented mainly by esters (ethyl decanoate and ethyl dodecanoate) and alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol) were found.
Cachaça is a beverage of great cultural and economic importance for Brazil. It is made up of several substances that are responsible for the flavor of the beverage. Countless substances of a toxic nature can also be present, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These contaminants are commonly found in beverages and food. They have been studied because their toxicity is related to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, and they pose a risk to human health. The PAHs can be formed in cachaça during different stages of processing. In this work, the presence of PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, acephenylene, and benzo[a]pyrene) was investigated during the storage of the beverage in plastic containers. Thus, samples from five producers of cachaça in the state of Minas Gerais were stored for up to 8 months in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging from three different manufacturers. Samples stored for 4 and 8 months were analyzed by high‐performance liquid chromatography, and 10 PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, acephenylene, and benzo[a]pyrene) were identified and quantified. An increase in PAH concentration in cachaça samples with the storage time in plastic containers was observed. The three different packages contributed to the contamination of the cachaça samples with different PAHs. The highest concentration (approximately 11.0 µg L–1) of fluorene was observed in sample A from the three packages and during the two storage times. Thus, it can be inferred that the storage of cachaça in bottles of PET is inadequate for maintaining the quality of the beverage.
Therefore, it can be inferred from the results of the analysis that PET packages are sources of PAHs, and the storage time in these packages contributed to the increase in the concentration of these contaminants in the beverage. These results suggest that a review of the legislation regarding the use of PET packaging for beverage storage is necessary, as these compounds are carcinogenic.
Acrolein is a toxic aldehyde that can be present in various beverages, such as cachaça and other distilled spirits from sugarcane. The objective of this work was to detect and quantify acrolein in samples of cachaça produced by different processes in all regions of Brazil and to evaluate the possible routes of formation of this contaminant from the correlation with other secondary compounds present in the beverage using principal component analysis. Approximately 27.0% of the samples analyzed were outside the limit established by Brazilian legislation for this contaminant, with an average acrolein concentration of 14.01 mg 100 mL −1 anhydrous alcohol (aa). In the other samples, the average concentration was 0.97 mg 100 mL −1 aa. After selecting the variables that most closely correlated with the presence of acrolein in beverages, a positive correlation was found with the presence of butan-2-ol, propan-1-ol and volatile acids, and a slight correlation with the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the presence of acrolein in cachaça can be associated with contamination of the fermentation must by bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus, as a result of the chemical degradation and enzymatic conversion of the glycerol produced during fermentation.
The present work sought to characterize the cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin in five sugarcane varieties and to determine its possible relationship with the formation of ethyl carbamate in cachaça. For each variety, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts were prepared and submitted to thin layer chromatography. Chromatographic spots were revealed with iodine vapors. The physical and chemical parameters of the spirits produced from the five different varieties of sugar cane and by different production processes were within the legal limits. Although not exceeding the limit for ethyl carbamate, a significant variation in the final concentration of this compound was observed for each sample analyzed. The R f values for the dhurrin standard and for the sugarcane variety SP 83-2847 were equal, similar to those for SP 80-3280 and CTC 11 and different from the R f values for the RB 86-7515 and IAC 86-2480 samples.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.