The unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei rapidly removes host-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) from its cell surface, which is dominated by a single type of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). We have determined the mechanism of antibody clearance and found that Ig-VSG immune complexes are passively sorted to the posterior cell pole, where they are endocytosed. The backward movement of immune complexes requires forward cellular motility but is independent of endocytosis and of actin function. We suggest that the hydrodynamic flow acting on swimming trypanosomes causes directional movement of Ig-VSG immune complexes in the plane of the plasma membrane, that is, immunoglobulins attached to VSG function as molecular sails. Protein sorting by hydrodynamic forces helps to protect trypanosomes against complement-mediated immune destruction in culture and possibly in infected mammals but likewise may be of functional significance at the surface of other cell types such as epithelial cells lining blood vessels
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes. To establish and maintain a 'healthy' fish microbiome, a fundamental understanding of the diversity and temporal-spatial dynamics of fish-associated microbial communities and their impact on growth and health of their aquatic hosts is required. This review describes insights in the diversity and functions of the fish bacterial communities elucidated with next-generation sequencing and discusses the potential of the microbes to mitigate (re-)emerging diseases in aquaculture.
Cells from the myeloid lineage are pluripotent. To investigate the potential of myeloid cell polarization in a primitive vertebrate species, we phenotypically and functionally characterized myeloid cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during culture. Flow cytometric analysis, Ab labeling of cell surface markers, and light microscopy showed the presence of a major population of heterogeneous macrophages after culture. These head kidney-derived macrophages can be considered the fish equivalent of bone marrow-derived macrophages and show the ability to phagocytose, produce radicals, and polarize into innate activated or alternatively activated macrophages. Macrophage polarization was based on differential activity of inducible NO synthase and arginase for innate and alternative activation, respectively. Correspondingly, gene expression profiling after stimulation with LPS or cAMP showed differential expression for most of the immune genes presently described for carp. The recently described novel Ig-like transcript 1 (NILT1) and the CXCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine receptors were up-regulated after stimulation with cAMP, an inducer of alternative activation in carp macrophages. Up-regulation of NILT1 was also seen during the later phase of a Trypanosoma carassii infection, where macrophages are primarily alternatively activated. However, NILT1 could not be up-regulated during a Trypanoplasma borreli infection, a model for innate activation. Our data suggest that NILT1, CXCR1, and CXCR2 could be considered markers for alternatively activated macrophages in fish.
In the current study, we investigated the effects of carp Il10 on phagocytes and lymphocytes. Carp Il10 shares several prototypical inhibitory activities on phagocytes with mammalian IL-10, including deactivation of neutrophils and macrophages, as shown by inhibition of oxygen and nitrogen radical production, as well as reduced expression of proinflammatory genes and mhc genes involved in Ag presentation. Similar to mammalian IL-10, carp Il10 acts through a signaling pathway involving phosphorylation of Stat3, ultimately leading to the early upregulation of socs3 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the effects of Il10 on lymphocytes in fish. Although Il10 did not affect survival and proliferation of T cells from naive animals, it greatly promoted survival and proliferation of T cells in cultures from immunized animals, but only when used in combination with the immunizing Ag. Preliminary gene expression analysis suggests that, under these circumstances, carp Il10 stimulates a subset of CD8+ memory T cells while downregulating CD4+ memory Th1 and Th2 responses. In addition to the regulatory effect on T cells, carp Il10 stimulates proliferation, differentiation, and Ab secretion by IgM+ B cells. Overall, carp Il10 shares several prototypical activities with mammalian IL-10, including downregulation of the inflammatory response of phagocytes, stimulation of proliferation of subsets of memory T lymphocytes, and proliferation, differentiation, and Ab secretion by IgM+ B lymphocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of biological activities of fish Il10 on both phagocytes and lymphocytes showing functional conservation of several properties of Il10.
In this review, we support taking polarized immune responses in teleost fish from a 'macrophage first' point of view, a hypothesis that reverts the dichotomous T helper (TH)1 and TH2 driving forces by building on the idea of conservation of innate immune responses in lower vertebrates. It is plausible that the initial trigger for macrophage polarization into M1 (inflammation) or M2 (healing) could rely only on sensing microbial/parasite infection or other innate danger signals, without the influence of adaptive immunity. Given the long and ongoing debate on the presence/absence of a typical TH1 cytokine environment and, in particular, TH2 cytokine environment in fish immune responses, it stands out that the presence of macrophages with polarized phenotypes, alike M1 and M2, have been relatively easy to demonstrate for fish. We summarize in short present knowledge in teleost fish on those cytokines considered most critical to the dichotomous development of TH1/M1 and TH2/M2 polarization, in particular, but not exclusively, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13. We review, in more detail, polarization of fish immune responses taken from the macrophage point of view for which we adopted the simple nomenclature of M1 and M2. We discuss inducible nitric oxide synthase, or NOS-2, as a reliable M1 marker and arginase-2 as a reliable M2 marker for teleost fish and discuss the value of these macrophage markers for the generation of zebrafish reporter lines to study M1/M2 polarization in vivo.
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