A simple methodology for the determination of the fatty acid composition of edible oils through (1)H NMR is proposed. The method is based on the fact that all fatty acid chains are esterified to a common moiety, glycerol, and the quantification is done directly in the (1)H NMR spectra through the relationship between the areas of a characteristic signal of each fatty acid and a signal of the glycerol moiety, without the use of mathematical equations. The methodology was successfully applied to determine the fatty acid composition of several edible oils, with equivalent results to those given by the AOAC Official method by gas chromatography. Its main advantages are simplicity and the lack of need for sample pre-treatment such as derivatization or extraction.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bark extract of Annona foetida afforded a new antileishmanial pyrimidine-beta-carboline alkaloid, N-hydroxyannomontine (1), together with the previously reported annomontine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3), and liriodenine (4). The structure of compound 1 was established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. This is the third reported pyrimidine-beta-carboline-type alkaloid and is particularly important for Annona genus chemotaxonomy. In addition, all compounds exhibit in vitro antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis. Compounds 2 and 4 showed better activity than compounds 1 and 3 against L. braziliensis. Compound 2 was not active against L. guyanensis.
RESUMO:No Brasil as espécies de Mikania glomerata Spreng. e M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, popularmente conhecidas como guaco, são amplamente utilizadas com evidências pré-clínicas para o tratamento de doenças onde estejam envolvidas suas ações broncodilatadoras, antialérgicas, antiasmáticas, anti-inflamatórias, antiulcerogênicas e relaxantes da musculatura lisa. Em virtude das propriedades terapêuticas atribuídas as essas espécies, ambas foram oficializadas na farmacopéia brasileira, e por serem bastante semelhantes, dificilmente são diferenciadas. Com o objetivo de contribuir com novas pesquisas, a presente revisão descreve, de forma sistematizada, sobre os aspectos farmacológicos, toxicológicos, químicos, agronômicos, morfoanatômicos, genéticos e o uso nos programas de fitoterapia do Brasil destas espécies. As principais diferenças e semelhanças entre as duas espécies são evidenciadas através da comparação das informações baseadas na literatura específica.Unitermos: Asteraceae, Mikania glomerata, Mikania laevigata, guaco, plantas medicinais.ABSTRACT: "Mikania glomerata Spreng. e M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae: agronomic, genetic, anatomical, chemical, pharmacological, toxicological studies and its use in herbal therapy programs in Brazil." In Brazil the species of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae popularly known as guaco, are widely used with preclinical evidence for the treatment of diseases whose actions involve bronchodilators, antiallergic, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic and smooth muscles relaxant. Due to the therapeutic properties attributed to these species, both were included in the official Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, and because of their similarity, they are hardly differentiated. In order to contribute to the new research, this review describes their several aspects: pharmacology, toxicology, chemical, agricultural, anatomical, genetics and the use in herbal medicine programs in Brazil, in a systematic way. The main differences and similarities between the two species are evidenced by comparing the information based on literature.
Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Guatteria hispida afforded three new alkaloids, 9-methoxy-O-methylmoschatoline (1), 9-methoxyisomoschatoline (2), and isocerasonine (3), along with 10 known alkaloids, 8-oxopseudopalmatine (4), O-methylmoschatoline (5), lysicamine (6), liriodenine (7), 10-methoxyliriodenine (8), nornuciferine (9), anonaine (10), xylopine (11), coreximine (12), and isocoreximine (13). The major compounds, 2, 6, 12, and 13, showed significant antioxidant capacity in the ORAC(FL) assay. Compounds 5, 6, and 7 were active against S. epidermidis and C. dubliniensis, with MIC values in the range 12.5-100 microg mL(-1).
Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, which is known to produce several secondary metabolites, including gliotoxin, the most abundant metabolite produced during hyphal growth. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is often made late in the infection because of the lack of reliable and feasible diagnostic techniques; therefore, early detection is critical to begin treatment and avoid more serious complications. The present work reports the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the detection of gliotoxin in the serum of patients with suspected aspergillosis. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an XBridge C18 column (150×2.1 mm id; 5 mm particle size) maintained at 25°C with the corresponding guard column (XBridge C18, 10×2.1 mm id, 5 mm particle size). The mobile phase was composed of a gradient of water and acetonitrile/water (95∶5 v/v), both containing 1 mM ammonium formate with a flow rate of 0.45 mL min−1. Data from the validation studies demonstrate that this new method is highly sensitive, selective, linear, precise, accurate and free from matrix interference. The developed method was successfully applied to samples from patients suspected of having aspergillosis. Therefore, the developed method has considerable potential as a diagnostic technique for aspergillosis.
CarquejaMorphology Anatomy Quality control A B S T R A C TBaccharis glaziovii Baker, Asteraceae, also known as carqueja or carqueja-arbustinho, is a native shrub of Brazil that reaches 0.5-2.5 m in height. It is a dioecious species that blossoms from September to December. This species has cladodes, which are winged stems that belong to the "carquejas" and are widely used indiscriminately by the population due to their gastric and diuretic properties. Carquejas are included in section Caulopterae and are difficult to identify even for taxonomists or Baccharis specialists. In the present study, a morpho-anatomical (cladodes and leaves) analysis of the medicinal plant was undertaken to improve its identification and add to the knowledge of section Caulopterae. Fragments of cladodes and leaves were collected and prepared in accordance with standard optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The morpho-anatomical characteristics found in B. glaziovii, include three-winged stems showing wings in a regular arrangement around the stem axis, short and petiolate leaves, flagelliform and simple non-glandular trichomes, concave-convex midrib, petioles with a concave shape and a slight projection on the adaxial face and convex with three projections on the abaxial surface, and calcium oxalate crystals in the form of raphides, styloids and pyramidal in the perimedullary region of the cladode, when evaluated as a whole, provide support for the quality control.
Malva sylvestris has been used since ancient times for its emollient, laxative and anti-inflammatory properties, being extensively used as salads, soups and teas. The preset study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory action of M. sylvestris hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and its compounds in mice ear inflammation caused by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate in mice. The LC-MS analysis of the HE confirmed the presence of scopoletin, quercetin and malvidin 3-glucoside compounds in the HE of M. sylvestris. Topical application of the HE reduced ear oedema, polymorphonuclear cells influx (myeloperoxydase activity and histological analysis) and interleukin-1β levels in the tissue. The topical application of the compound present in the HE, malvidin 3-glucoside was also able to inhibit ear oedema and leukocytes migration. The other tested compounds, scopoletin, quercetin and malvidin 3,5-glucoside were able to prevent the formation of oedema and cell infiltration, but with less effectiveness when compared to HE and malvidin 3-glucoside. Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that M. sylvestris leaves possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity, the compound malvidin 3-glucoside seems to be major responsible for this effect, with the participation of other anti-inflammatory compounds in the extract. Thus, as recommended by population, M. sylvestris can be used as a future treatment to skin disorders.
Phytochemical investigation of the branches of Annona foetida Mart. led to isolation from the CH2Cl2 extract of four alkaloids: Atherospermidine (1), described for the first time in this species, liriodenine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3), and annomontine (4). Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data from IR, MS, NMR (1D and 2D), and comparison with the literature. Compounds 2–4 showed potent trypanocidal effect when evaluated against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.
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