Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley.
Em estudo retrospectivo abrangendo os anos de 1984 a 1997, foram realizados 15.558 exames sorológicos para leptospirose (SAM, com coleção de 24 sorovares), que incluíram: 284 ovinos, 879 bubalinos, 983 cães, 1.941 caprinos, 2.903 eqüinos e 8.568 suínos, distribuídos percentualmente por estado da seguinte forma: ovinos - SP (100%); bubalinos - SP (100%); cães - SP (80,7%), RS (0,10%), SC (0,10%) e PI (19,0%); caprinos - SP (33,1%), PB (63,7%) e CE (3,2%); eqüinos - SP (79,3%), RS (9,98%), SC (0,62%), PR (2,5%), RJ (0,17%), MG (1,96%), MT (3,99%), PB (1,3%) e PI (0,03%); suínos - SP (61,91%), RS (0,3%), SC (5,95%), PR (3,67%), RJ (0,88%), MG (24,38%), GO (1,12%), SE (0,2%), PE (0,90%), CE (0,34%) e MA (0,1%). A distribuição temporal dos animais examinados incluiu: para a espécie ovina - 54,5% referentes aos anos 1996 e 97, 33,3% referentes a 89 e 90 e 12,2% aos outros anos; espécie bubalina - 21,7% no intervalo de 1984 a 95 e 78,83% entre 96 e 97; espécie canina - 16,91% entre 1984 e 92 e 83,09% entre 1993 e 97; caprinos - 6,97% entre 1984 e 91 e 93,09% entre 1992 e 97, sendo que 49% das amostras foram referentes ao ano de 1992; eqüinos - 18,1% no intervalo de 84 a 90 e 81,9% de1991 a 97; suínos - 61,16% referentes aos anos 90, 91, 95 e 96. As médias de animais reatores e variantes mais freqüentes por espécie foram: ovinos - 0,70% de soropositividade e reações mais freqüentes para a variante icterohaemorrhagiae; bubalinos - 43,7% de positivos e variantes hardjo seguida de pomona; cães - soropositividade de 17,7% e reações para as variantes copenhageni e icterohaemorrhagiae no estado de SP e pyrogenes no PI; caprinos - 4,17% de positividade e variantes icterohaemorrhagiae e grippotyphosa no CE, icterohaemorrhagiae na PB e pyrogenes em SP; eqüinos - 29% de soros positivos e variantes icterohaemorrhagiae no PR, SC, SP, RJ e MG, grippotyphosa no MT, pyrogenes na PB e patoc no RS; suínos - soropositividade de 24,46% e grippotyphosa seguida de icterohaemorrhagiae em MG, pomona no RS, pomona e icterohaemorrhagiae em PE e RJ, autumnalis no CE e icterohaemorrhagiae em GO, PR, SC e SP.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health authorities for making decisions to prevent and control zoonotic VL. Hence, improvements in both public and animal health can be achieved in regions with scenarios similar to that considered in the present study; such scenarios are characteristically found in some areas of Brazil and other countries.
With the aim of supporting the strategic planning of the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis, different Brazilian states have been conducting cross-sectional studies, coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply and with scientific support from the University of São Paulo and the University of Brasilia. In Santa Catarina, the State Animal Health Agency (CIDASC) conducted a study on bovine tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and assessment of risk factors in 2012. The state was divided into five regions and, in each region, independent sampling was performed in two steps: (i) cattle herds with reproductive activity were randomly selected; and (ii) in each herd, a sample of females aged 24 months or older underwent the intradermal comparative tuberculin test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on production characteristics and management practices that could be associated with the tuberculosis infection. Herd prevalence of bovine TB was 0.50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.074-0.93%) while the prevalence of TB in adult females was 0.06% (95% CI: 0-0.12%). No significant difference in the prevalence of infected herds and of positive females was observed among the five regions. The logistic regression model revealed that herds with 19 or more females showed an odds ratio (OR) of 7.68 (95% CI: 1.22-48.39) compared to smaller herds, while dairy herds presented an OR of 10.43 (95% CI: 2.00-54.25) relative to beef or dual-purpose herds. The results suggest that dairy herds, in which animals are kept in partial or total confinement, and larger herds, which tend to acquire animals more often, are at a higher risk of bovine TB. Given the low prevalence and the type of higher-risk properties, a bovine TB surveillance system should be targeted at the state's dairy basins, particularly the western region that accounts for the major industries and more intensive dairy farms. (TB). O Estado foi dividido em cinco regiões e, em cada uma delas, foi realizada uma amostragem independente em duas etapas: (i) propriedades com atividade reprodutiva foram selecionadas aleatoriamente; (ii) em cada propriedade, uma amostra de fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses foi submetida ao teste tuberculínico intradérmico comparativo. Um questionário foi utilizado para recolher dados sobre as características de produção e práticas de gestão que poderiam estar associados com a infecção tuberculosa. A prevalência de focos de tuberculose bovina foi de 0,50% (95% intervalo de confiança [CI]: 0,074-0,93%), enquanto a prevalência de TB em animais foi de 0,06% (IC 95%: 0-0,12%). Não foi observada diferença significativa na prevalência de focos ou animais entre as cinco regiões. O modelo de regressão logística revelou que rebanhos com 19 ou mais vacas apresentaram um odds ratio (OR) de 7,68 (IC 95%: 1,22-48,39) em comparação com rebanhos menores, enquanto rebanhos leiteiros apresentaram um OR de CI 10,43 (95%: 2.00-54,25) em relação aos rebanhos de corte ou de duplo propósito. ...
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